Individual Processes Attitude and Values
Submitted To :Submitted By :
Dr. Pramod PathakAjit Vinod Kujur
Individual behavior is how we as individuals behave ourselves. This behavior is subject to many personal traits as well as habits, values, perceptions, and other qualities and features.
People make assumptions about those whom they work with, supervise, or spend time with in leisure activities. To some extent, these assumptions influence the person’s behavior towards others. Effective employees understand what affects their own behavior before attempting to influence the behavior of others. Individual behavior is the foundation of organizational performance. Understanding individual behavior, therefore, is crucial for effective management. Each person is a physiological system composed of a number of subsystems- attitudes, perception, personality, needs, values and feelings.
A tendency to feel & behave in a particular way towards objects, people or events.
* Remain unchanged for a long period - unless influenced by external forces * Evaluative statements - favorable or unfavorable
* Cognitive - the opinions, values or beliefs of an individual * Affective - the feelings of a person towards something
* Behavioral - the intention of a person to behave in a particular way
Sources of Attitude
* Attitudes are acquired by parents, teachers,& peer group members * Individuals are willing to modify their behavior & shape their attitude - to match with the opinion leader * Attitude can be changed by providing feedback
Types of Attitude
* Job satisfaction
* The pleasurable or positive emotional state that results when an individual evaluates his job or job experience.
* It is an emotional response to a job.
* The satisfaction that an individual derives from his job depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations. * Job satisfaction reflects other attitudes of employee.
* 6 dimensions (P.C. Smith, L.M Kendall, C.L. Hulin) i.e.
1) The work
2) The pay
7) Working conditions
* Job Involvement
* The extent to which person identifies himself psychologically with his job, actively participates in it & considers that his performance in the job contribute to his self worth
* Organizational Commitment
* An employee’s satisfaction with a particular organization & its goals OC is affected by a number of
* Personal variables – employee’s age, attitude towards job. * Organizational variables - job design, leadership style of the superior.
John P. Meyer & Natalie J. Allen gave 3 component model i.e.
* Affective commitment – It is concerned with employee’s emotional attachment & involvement with the organization * Continuance commitment – It is influenced by the costs that could accrue to the employee if he leaves the org * Normative commitment – It refers to the extent to which an employee feels obliged to continue in the organization.
Functions of Attitudes
* The adjustment function
* People modify their attitudes to adjust to their work environment * When fair treatment is given – positive attitude
* When treatment is not good – negative attitude
* Ego-defensive function
* Attitudes help employee to defend their self image - when mistake identified - protects their ego
* The value expressive function
* Values can be expressed through attitudes
E.g. if mgr wants employee to work hard - may tell company has a tradition of hard work.
* The knowledge function
* Attitudes act as a standard of reference...