Individual and Neutral Versus Emotional

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Trompenaars’ five relationship orientations

There are five orientations covering the ways in which human beings deal with each other: 1.Universalism versus Particularism
Do we consider rules or relationships more important?
2.Communitarianism versus Individualism
Do we act mostly as individuals or as groups?
3.Neutral versus Emotional
Are we free to express our emotions or are we restrained?
4.Specific versus Diffuse
How extensively are we involved with the lives of other people? 5.Achievement versus Ascription
Do we achieve status through accomplishment or is it part of our situation in life?

1.Universalism versus Particularism

Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification. In culture with high universalism, the focus is more on formal rules than on relationships, business contracts are adhered to very closely, and people believe that “a deal is a deal”.

Particularism is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. In cultures with high particularism, the focus is more on relationships and trust than on formal rules. In a particularist culture, legal contracts often are modified, and as people get to know each other better, they often change the way in which deals are executed.

2.Communitarianism versus Individualism

Communitarianism refers to people regarding themselves as part of a group. In countries high on communitarianism, people value group-related issues, refer decisions to committees, achieve things in groups and jointly assume responsibility.

Individualism refers to people regarding themselves as individuals. In countries high on individualism, people stress personal and individual matters, and are more likely to make negotiated decisions on the spot by a representative achieve things alone and assume great personal responsibility.

3.Neutral versus Emotional

A neutral culture is one in which emotions are held in...
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