Indigenous Australians and Native Hawaiians

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What is Indigenous Tourism?
Indigenous Tourism is about reciprocity among humans and landscapes–learning to responsibly manage the impacts of tourism activities in ways that benefit local communities economically, socially, culturally and ecologically1. Indigenous Tourism encompasses tourism product that provides consenting contact with Aboriginal people, culture or land. The term is also applied to businesses that are either Aboriginal owned or part owned or that employ Aboriginal people. Indigenous Tourism encompasses all tourism product opportunities – Cultural Heritage, Adventure, Rural, Leisure, Educational, Arts and Crafts and provision of tourism services2. Indigenous History of the Australian and Hawaiian people

The Indigenous cultures of Australia are the oldest living cultural history in the world, going back 50,000 – 65,000 years3. Their heritage was kept alive by passing their knowledge, arts, rituals and performances from one generation to another3. Similarly, the Indigenous Hawaiians had no form of writing and preserved their history through chants and legends. Both cultures suffered heavy losses from the discovery of their lands by European explorers, with Indigenous Australians facing trauma such as the stolen generation, and the Native Hawaiians having their culture and language discarded and forced into speaking English and adapting to the European culture45. In more recent times, both cultures have experienced resurgence in encouragement to embrace their cultures. Gatherings and addresses in Australia now acknowledge the original custodians of the land they stand on,6 and there are now Indigenous Australian Football and Rugby League teams, both called the Indigenous All Stars7. In the 1990s for Native Hawaiians, several factors led to big changes. The majority of sugar and pineapple plantations shut down, while different agricultural crops like macadamias and coffee beans took over. Film and television also contributed to the growth of...