Textiles are an important source of reference for the cultural studies because of their universality. Textiles have always draped the body whether human, deities, animal, floor and furniture. Unlike stone, clay, metal etc. textiles were traditionally made from biodegradable materials. Cotton) silk wool was three main materials for textiles apart from best and leaf fibers. Initially very simple technologies were used for making the textiles. The most basic skill involved spinning the fiber into yarn and then changes it to fabric by a process called weaving. The implements used for weaving and spinning were and in many parts of India still continue to be of biodegradable materials like wood .There is exist a very scant reference of the fabric making skills in the archaeological excavations. Along with the tools of their manufacture, fabric materials have long degraded in our tropical climate. Textiles consist of fibers yarns fabrics and finishes. Each of these stages has a variety of processes involved to reach the next stage. Hand and feet have even today remained the tools for various processes supported by materials like wood, terracotta, metal, yarns, beads, semiprecious stones, colors etc. The concept of the Indian textile technologies is intricately related to both, the manufacture and decoration. This may therefore be researched in a chronological framework starting from archaeological past to the contemporary times. Regional developments have been very typical to certain styles of manufacture and decorations in textiles. The Multi-Fiber Agreement, that had governed the extent of textile trade between nations since 1962, expired on 1 January, 2005. It is expected that, post-MFA, most tariff distortions would gradually disappear and firms with robust capabilities will gain in the global trade of textile and apparel. The prize is the $360 is market which is expected to grow to about $600 bn by the year 2010 - barely five years after the expiry of MFA. An important question facing Indian firms is whether their capabilities and their diverse supply chain are aligned to benefit from the opening up of global textile market? The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks around 3000 BC. The diversity of fibres found in India, intricate weaving on its state-of-art manual looms and its organic dyes attracted buyers from all over the world for centuries. The British colonization of India and its industrial policies destroyed the innovative eco-system and left it technologically impoverished. Independent India saw the building up of textile capabilities, diversification of its product base, and its emergence, once again, as an important global player. Today, the textile and apparel sector employs 35.0 mn people (and is the 2nd largest employer), generates 1/5th of the total export earnings and contributes 4 per cent to the GDP thereby making it the largest industrial sector of the country. This textile economy is worth US $37 bn and its share of the global market is about 5.90 per cent. The sector aspires to grow its revenue to US $85bn, its export value to US $50bn and employment to 12 million by the year 2010 (Texmin 2005). THE TTILE AND APPREL SUPPLY CHAIN
The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain comprises diverse raw material sectors, ginning facilities, spinning and extrusion processes, processing sector, weaving and knitting factories and garment (and other stitched and non-stitched) manufacturing that supply an extensive distribution channel (see Figure 1). This supply chain is perhaps one of the most diverse in terms of the raw materials used, technologies deployed and products produced. This supply chain supplies about 70 per cent by value of its production to the domestic market. The distribution channel comprises wholesalers, distributors and a large number of small retailers selling garments and textiles. It is only recently that large retail formats are emerging thereby...
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