Indian Metro

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Metro Railways: Challenges &opportunities
Kartikeya Pandey1
Manisha Minu1
Abstract
Growing cities, population and traffic has invariably called for a shift from private modes of conveyance to public transport. Young population, and rapidly expanding urban areas, India has a perfect opportunity to shape its cities around mass transit. India (like many other developing countries) however has lagged behind though its first metro, the Kolkata Metro, started working almost 25 years ago. The reasons could be attributed to lack of funds planning and it is known that such projects require huge capital investments, a long gestation period and complex technology. Other reasons could include the lack of integration between various systems of mass transportation and the absence of comprehensive traffic and transportation planning .India is looking to create a world class infrastructure with its existent Kolkata and Delhi Metros with the addition of Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Jaipur, and Kochi metros in the next few years while proposals for MRTS for Pune, Chandigarh and a few more cities are being chalked out. This paper focuses on key challenges like: Cost, PPP, Consulting, Financing, Environmental effects and so on. The working of different metro projects shall be analyzed as a part of lessons learned & best practices in past. The type of financing to be done for a particular city for metro building because metro is the most expensive public transport & is also irreversible .A metro is a solution that is related to the size of the city’s population. There are factors, such as population density, the ability to pay, and finally the intensity of commuter traffic. All these have to be taken into account for a metro rail to be viable in a city. The fact of exploding population the needs of a hassle free need of transportation has led to the birth of metro projects & now when nearly half of the cities which fulfill the criterion for a metro there is a need of best business model like BOT or a sole owner be it a government, private player or a consortium with different needs like SPV etc. The metro presents an image of modernity and convenience, a stark contrast with the chaotic & overcrowded masses, metros have the potential to challenge some of the negative perceptions of rail travel in India, and help to keep congestion at a manageable level but cities will need to build fast if they are to provide sustainable mobility for their fast-growing populations. Key words : PPP, BOT, Consortium, MRTS, SPV.

Introduction
India is one of the most developing economies who are undergoing urbanization at approximately 8% per year. The needs of fast developing cities are changing at a very rapid rate. The congestion on the roads has been constantly increasing the solution is either a comprehensive bus system or a metro system which will help in removing the thousands of cars from the roads. A sustainable city is one which wastes the least & conserves the maximum. BRTS is a very good solution but if you want to remove the traffic from the streets then sending huge buses on the roads is probably not a good idea as no matter what the policy the government gives the number of vehicles will increase on the long run. Thus, a rail based metro system is inescapable & as soon as the city crosses the one million mark its logical to start a metro in the city. In the global scenario the metro was started in the 1920’s this is when the larger cities expanded to around 10 million in diameters with a population of around 1-2 million & the concentration of the people were at ends of the cities so it was essential to live along the lines as the industries and employment centers developed along the lines of existing rail tracks this led to the birth of the metro system in the 19th century. Most of the Indian cities have expanded in the 1960s and the planning was not done properly. In addition, the second half of the 20th century most Indian...
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