Indian Independence Movement and India

Topics: India, Indian independence movement, British Raj Pages: 7 (3416 words) Published: September 3, 2013
Independence Day, observed annually on 15 August, is a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from British rule on 15 August 1947. India attained freedom following an independence movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC).[1] Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British Indian Empire was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties. On 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had become the first Prime Minister of India that day, raised the Indian national flag above the Lahore Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the Prime Minister has raised the flag and given a speech.[2] The holiday is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies, parades and cultural events. Indians celebrate the day by displaying the national flag on their attire, accessories, homes and vehicles; by listening to patriotic songs, watching patriotic movies; and bonding with family and friends. Books and films feature the independence and partition in their narrative. Separatist and militant organisations have often carried out terrorist attacks on and around 15 August, and others have declared strikes and used black flags to boycott the celebration. Contents [hide]

1 History
1.1 Independence Day before independence
1.2 Immediate background
1.3 Partition and independence
2 Celebration
3 Security threats
4 In popular culture
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
History[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Indian independence movement
European traders had established outposts on the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century. Through overwhelming military strength, the British East India company subdued local kingdoms and established themselves as the dominant force by the 18th century. Following the Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of India. In the decades following, civic society gradually emerged across India, most notably the Indian National Congress, formed in 1885.[3][4]:123 The period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it also witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The discontent of this period crystallized into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.[4]:167 During the 1930s, reform was gradually legislated by the British; Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[4]:195–197 The next decade was beset with political turmoil: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism led by the All-India Muslim League. The escalating political tension was capped by Independence in 1947. The jubilation was tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan.[4]:203 Independence Day before independence[edit source | editbeta] At the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration, or "Declaration of the Independence of India" was promulgated,[5] and 26 January was declared as Independence Day.[5] The Congress called on people to pledge themselves to civil disobedience and "to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time" until India attained complete independence.[6] Celebration of such an Independence Day was envisioned to stoke nationalistic fervour among Indian citizens, and to force the British government to consider granting independence.[7]:19 The Congress observed 26 January as the Independence Day between 1930 and 1947.[8][9] The celebration was marked by meetings where the attendants took the "pledge of independence".[7]:19–20 Jawaharlal Nehru described in his autobiography...
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