Indian Financial System

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Indian financial system

The Finance is the science of money manages- ment. We can say that finance is something related to manage - ment of money and other assets. Finance represents the resources by way funds needed for a particular activity. Finance is also referred to as "Funds" or "Capital", when referring to the financial needs of a corporate body. Now you can finance anything that you want for example you can have home loans, business loans, education economic development of a nation is reflected by the progress of the various economic units, broadly classified into corporate sector, government and household sector. While performing their activities these units will be placed in a surplus/deficit/balanced budgetary situations.

There are areas or people with surplus funds and there are those with a deficit. A financial system or financial sector functions as an intermediary and facilitates the flow of funds from the areas of surplus to the areas of deficit. A Financial System is a composition of various institutions, markets, regulations and laws, practices, money manager, analysts, transactions and claims and liabilities.

The word "system", in the term "financial system", implies a set of complex and closely connected or interlined institutions, agents, practices, markets, transactions, claims, and liabilities in the economy. The financial system is concerned about money, credit and finance-the three terms are intimately related yet are somewhat different from each other. Indian financial system consists of financial market, financial instruments and financial intermediation. Definition

A Financial Market can be defined as the market in which financial assets are created or transferred. As against a real transaction that involves exchange of money for real goods or services, a financial transaction involves creation or transfer of a financial asset. Financial Assets or Financial Instruments represents a claim to the payment of a sum of money sometime in the future and /or periodic payment in the form of interest or dividend. Structure of Indian Financial System

Structure of Indian Financial System
Financial System of any country consists of financial markets, financial intermediation and financial instruments or financial products. This paper discusses the meaning of finance and Indian Financial System and focus on the financial markets, financial intermediaries and financial instruments. Financial instrument-

1) Money Market Tools-
The money market can be defined as a market for short-term money and financial assets that are near substitutes for money. The term short-term means generally a period up to one year and near substitutes to money is used to denote any financial asset which can be quickly converted into money with minimum transaction cost. Some of the important money market instruments are briefly discussed below; 1.Call/Notice Money

2. Treasury Bills
3. Term Money
4. Certificate of Deposit
5. Commercial Papers

1. Call /Notice-Money Market
Call/Notice money is the money borrowed or lent on demand for a very short period. When money is borrowed or lent for a day, it is known as Call (Overnight) Money. Intervening holidays and/or Sunday are excluded for this purpose. Thus money, borrowed on a day and repaid on the next working day, (irrespective of the number of intervening holidays) is "Call Money". When money is borrowed or lent for more than a day and up to 14 days, it is "Notice Money". No collateral security is required to cover these transactions.

2. Inter-Bank Term Money
Inter-bank market for deposits of maturity beyond 14 days is referred to as the term money market. The entry restrictions are the same as those for Call/Notice Money except that, as per existing regulations, the specified entities are not allowed to lend beyond 14 days.

3. Treasury Bills.
Treasury Bills are short term (up to one year) borrowing instruments of the union government. It is...
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