Indian English

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Features of Indian English
Indian English refers to dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India and also by Indian Diaspora elsewhere In the world. Due to British colonialism for over two hundred years’ as were used more to British English than to American, Australian or Canadian English. And due to the presence of vernacular languages in our country, English was chosen to be the co-official language of the union of India. Our obvious choice is one of the varieties of British English; which educated southern British English also called as “Received Pronunciation” The reasons for these variations are:

· The presence of many vernacular languages
· People learn their mother Language first
· By the time they start learning English, they find it difficult to follow that pronunciation · They have in them very strongly formed linguistic habits that interface with their learning English · The phonological system of the mother tongue will have an influence on the phonology of their English Because of these reasons, Indian English has emerged as another variety of English just like the American, South African, etc, with its own distinctive features. Since there are several languages spoken in India, there cannot strictly speaking, be something called French English or German English; instead we have a variety of English spoken in India, such as Tamil English, Malayalam English, Telugu English, etc Basing on these varieties, the feature of Indian English can be grouped under phonological and grammatical features. http://www.boddunan.com/education/61-english-language/1568-indian-english.html

The differences between English and Hindi/Urdu
Introduction: Hindi is the major language of India. Linguistically and in its everyday spoken form Hindi is virtually identical to Urdu, which is the national language of Pakistan. The two languages are often jointly referred to as Hindustani or Hindu-Urdu. The differences between them are found in formal situations and in writing. Whereas Urdu is written in a form of Arabic script, Hindi is written left to right in a script called Devangari. Furthermore, much Urdu vocabulary derives from Persian / Arabic, while Sanskrit is the major supplier of Hindi words. The rest of this brief overview concerns the likely areas of interference between Hindi and English, although most of what is listed applies to Urdu too. Alphabet: The Devangari script employed by Hindi contains both vowels (10) and consonants (40) and is characterized by bars on top of the symbols. Hindi is highly phonetic; i.e. the pronunciation of new words can be reliably predicted from their written form. This is in strong contrast to English, with the result that Hindi learners may struggle with English spelling. Conversely, they may mispronounce words that they first encounter in writing. Phonology: In comparison with English Hindi has approximately half as many vowels and twice as many consonants. This leads to several problems of pronunciation. One difficulty is distinguishing phonemes in words such as said / sad; par / paw; vet / wet, etc. Words containing the letters th (this, thing, months) will cause Hindi learners the same kind of problems that they cause most other learners of English. The phoneme // as exemplified by the s in pleasure is missing in Hindi and so pronunciation of such words is difficult. Consonants clusters at the beginning or end of words are more common in English than Hindi. This leads to errors in the pronunciation of words such as straight (istraight), fly (faly), film (filam). Compared to English Hindi has weak but predictable word stress. Learners therefore have considerable difficulty with the irregular stress patterns of words such as photograph / photographer. Hindi learners are disinclined to 'swallow' unstressed syllables such as the first syllables in the words tomorrow, intelligent, remember, etc., and will often try to clearly articulate short, common words that are usually weakly...
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