Indian Contract Act 1872

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Indian Contract Act 1872
Indian Contract Act 1872 is the main source of law regulating contracts in Indian law, as subsequently amended. It determines the circumstances in which promise made by the parties to a contract shall be legally binding on them. All of us enter into a number of contracts everyday knowingly or unknowingly. Each contract creates some right and duties upon the contracting parties. Indian contract deals with the enforcement of these rights and duties upon the parties. The Indian Contract Act 1872 sections 1-75 came into force on 1 September 1872. It applies to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is not a complete and exhaustive law on all types of contracts. Contents

1 Definition
2 Essential Elements of a Valid Contract
3 Types of Contracts
4 Offer
5 Acceptance
6 Lawful Consideration
7 Competent To Contract
8 Free Consent
9 Revocation of Offer
10 Agency
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links

[edit] Definition
Section 2(h) of the Act defines the term contract as "an agreement enforceable by law". Section 2(e) defines agreement as "every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other." Again Section 2(b) defines promise in these words: "when the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. Proposal when accepted, becomes a promise." [edit] Essential Elements of a Valid Contract

According to Section 10, "All agreements are contracts, if they are made by the free consent of the parties, competent to contract, for a lawful consideration with a lawful object, and not hereby expressly to be void." Essential Elements of a Valid Contract are:-

1.Proper offer and proper acceptance.
2.Lawful Consideration: An agreement to form a valid contract should be supported by consideration. Consideration means “something in return” (quid pro quo). It can be cash, kind, an act or abstinence. It can be past, present or future. However, consideration should be real and lawful. 3.Competent to Contract or Capacity.

4.Free Consent: To constitute a valid contract there must be free and genuine consent of the parties to the contract. It should not be obtained by misrepresentation, fraud, coercion, undue influence or mistake. 5.Lawful Object and Agreement: The object of the agreement must not be illegal or unlawful. 6. Agreement not declared void or illegal: Agreements which have been expressly declared void or illegal by law are not enforceable at law; hence does not constitute a valid contract. 7. Intention To Create Legal Relationships

8. Certainity, Possibility Of Performance
9. Legal Formalities
[edit] Types of Contracts
On the basis of Validity:
1. Valid contract: An agreement which has all the essential elements of a contract is called a valid contract. A valid contract can be enforced by law. 2. Void contract[Section 2(j)]: A void contract is a contract which ceases to be enforceable by law. A contract when originally entered into may be valid and binding on the parties. It may subsequently become void. 3. Voidable contract[Section 2(i)]: An agreement which is enforceable by law at the option of one or more of the parties thereto, but not at the option of other or others, is a voidable contract. If the essential element of free consent is missing in a contract, the law confers right on the aggrieved party either to reject the contract or to accept it. However, the contract continues to be good and enforceable unless it is repudiated by the aggrieved party. 4. Illegal contract: A contract is illegal if it is forbidden by law; or is of such nature that, if permitted, would defeat the provisions of nay law or is fraudulent; or involves or implies injury to a person or property of another, or court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy. These agreements are punishable by law. These are void-ab-initio. “All illegal agreements are void agreements...
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