A bank is an institution that deals in money and its substitutes and provides other financial services. Banks accept deposits and make loans or make an investment to derive a profit from the difference in the interest rates paid and charged, respectively. In India the banks are being segregated in different groups. Each group has their own benefits and limitations in operating in India. Each has their own dedicated target market. Few of them only work in rural sector while others in both rural as well as urban. Many even are only catering in cities. Some are of Indian origin and some are foreign players.
India’s economy has been one of the stars of global economics in recent years. It has grown by more than 9% for three years running. The economy of India is as diverse as it is large, with a number of major sectors including manufacturing industries, agriculture, textiles and handicrafts, and services. Agriculture is a major component of the Indian economy, as over 66% of the Indian population earns its livelihood from this area. Banking sector is considered as a booming sector in Indian economy recently. Banking is a vital system for developing economy for the nation.
However, Indian banking system and economy has been facing various challenges and problems which have discussed in other parts of project.
INDIAN BANKING SYSTEM
Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have a healthy economy. The banking system of India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new challenges posed by the technology and any other external and internal factors. For the past three decades India's banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit. The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or cosmopolitans in India. In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of the country. This is one of the main reasons of India's growth process. The government's regular policy for Indian bank since 1969 has paid rich dividends with the nationalization of 14 major private banks of India.
Not long ago, an account holder had to wait for hours at the bank counters for getting a draft or for withdrawing his own money. Today, he has a choice. Gone are days when the most efficient bank transferred money from one branch to other in two days. Now it is simple as instant messaging or dial a pizza. Money has become the order of the day.
The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below: •Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks
•Nationalization of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. • New phase of Indian Banking System with the advent of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms after 1991.
After 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up by his name which worked for the liberalization of banking practices. The country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking is introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift. Time is given more importance than money. This resulted that Indian banking is growing at an astonishing rate, with Assets expected to reach US$1 trillion by 2010.
“The banking industry should focus on having a small number of large players that can compete globally and can achieve expected goals rather than having a large number of fragmented players." KINDS OF BANKS
Financial requirements in a modern economy are of a diverse nature, distinctive variety and large magnitude. Hence, different types of banks have been instituted to cater to the varying needs of the community. Banks in the organized sector may, however, be classified in to the...