Indian Agriculture

Topics: Agriculture, Agricultural economics, Food Pages: 18 (4330 words) Published: April 1, 2013
Indian Agriculture
* Mainstay of Indian Economy
* Since independence, undergone a change from being the sector contributing the highest share to the GDP to one contributing the lowest share. * Agriculture is a state subject.
* GDP contribution (Agriculture and allied sector)
* 56.5 pc in 1950-51
* 15.7 pc in 2008-09 and 14.6 pc in 2009-10. It was 19 pc in 2004-05. (2004-05 prices) * Agricultural GDP grew by 0.4 pc in 2009-10 and -0.1 pc in 2008-09. * Employment
* 75.9 pc in 1961
* 59.9 pc in 1999-2000
* 58.2 pc in 2008-09
* 1999-2000: Number at 237.8 million
* GCF
* Share in total GCF 2009-10: 7.7 pc (2004-05 prices)
* GCF as % of agricultural GDP: 2007-08 – 16.3, 2008-09(P) – 19.67, 2009-10(QE) – 20.3 * GCF as % of total GDP: 2007-08 – 2.69, 2008-09P – 3.09, 2009-10QE – 2.97 * Contributes to agricultural growth and industrial demand * Contributed 10.59 pc of total exports in 2009-10.

* Due to the large number of workforce in this sector, the growth of agriculture is a necessary condition for inclusive growth. * Food grains production
* Highest in 2008-09: 234. 47 mn t
* 2009-10: 218.11 mn t
Agriculture and Industry
* Agriculture as
* Supplier of wage goods to the industrial sector
* Provider of raw materials
* Consumer of agricultural capital goods produced by industry * Stagnation in agriculture
* Get data on CAGR
Land Reforms
* Great scarcity and uneven distribution of land
* Focus of agricultural policies in the initial years was on institutional changes through land reforms * Two objectives of land reforms in India
* To remove the impediments to agriculture that arise due to the character of agrarian structure in rural areas * To reduce or eliminate the exploitation of tenants/small farmers * Four main areas of land reforms in India

* Abolition of intermediaries (zamindars)
* Tenancy reforms
* Land ceilings
* Consolidation of disparate land holdings
* Economic arguments for land reforms
* Equity
* Small farms tend to be more productive than large farms * Owner cultivated plots of land tend to be more productive that those under sharecropped tenancy * Abolition of zamindari was successful while the other three areas of land reforms met with limited success * Operation Bargha. Also, LR in Kerala

* Regional trends in LR
* Effect of land reforms
* On tenants
* Absentee landlordism declined
* Tenancy declined. In some cases, tenants were evacuated from the land. * In some cases there was a drift of tenants into landless * Where tenants had not been evicted, tenancy was pushed underground * On equity

* On productivity
* On agrarian power relations
* The National Commission on Farmers has placed the unfinished agenda in land reform first in its list of five factors central overcome an agrarian crisis * Way forwards
* Land reforms that make tenancy legal and give well defined rights to tenants, including women, are now necessary

Technology and Green Revolution
* In the early 60s India faced several crises
* It had to fight two wars: Pakistan and China
* Severe drought in 1965 and 1966
* US was using PL-480 food supply as a means to twist India’s arms to meet US interests * This called for an overhaul of the agricultural strategy and the need to be self-sufficient in food production * Three phases of green revolution

* 1966-1972
* 1973-1980
* 1981-1990
* 1966-1972
* C Subramaniam and MSS
* 1965: Agricultural Prices Commission and Food Corporation of India set up * Introduction of HYV seed of wheat from Mexico created by CIMMYT * Under the new agricultural policy, the spread of HYVs was supported by public investments in...
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