India – is the seventh largest and the 2nd most populous country in the world. With over one billion people and a land that features countless languages and religions, India is actually the largest democracy in the world. The framework and fundamental workings of India’s government are essential knowledge for anyone interested in doing business there. India became independent on August 15, 1947. Under its visionary leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, it adopted a system of parliamentary democracy that remains intact today. The current constitution came into force on 26 November 1950 and advocates the trinity of justice, liberty and equality for all citizens.
India’s Democratic System
THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
India’s federal government, which based in Delhi, is known as the central or union government. The central governing system is based on bicameral or double-house system of the parliament made up of two houses. 1. India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, is modelled on the British House of Commons, but its federal system of government borrows from the experience of the United States, Canada and Australia 1. The lower house, the Lok Sabha or House of the People, is made up of elected representatives of the people sent from every part of he country, each one representing one single member constituency as in the British model for the House of Commons. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. As set out in the Constitution, the maximum size of the Lok Sabha is 552 members, made up of up to 530 members representing people from the states of India, up to 20 members representing people from the Union Territories, and two members to represent the Anglo-Indian community if it does not have adequate representation in the house according to the President. Currently the size of the house is 545 – made up of 530 elected from the states, 13 elected from the territories, and two nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. By far the largest state representation is that of Uttar Pradesh with 80 members. At the other end of the scale, three states have only one representative each. There are certain constituencies where only candidates from scheduled casts and scheduled tribes are allowed to stand. 2. The Upper House, also known as the House of Elders or the Rajya Sabha, this house is made up of members either elected by the State Assemblies – the counterparts of the Lok Sabha at the state level federal system, or nominated by the President. As set out in the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha has up to 250 members. 12 of these members are chosen by the President for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature, science, and social services. These members are known as nominated members. The remainder of the house – currently comprising 238 members - is elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the unit's population. Again, of course, the largest state representation is that of Uttar Pradesh with 31 members. The method of election in the local legislatures is the single transferable vote. Terms of office are for six years, with one third of the members facing re-election every two years. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous session and, unlike the Lok Sabha, it is not subject to dissolution. The Prime Minister, himelf is a member of the Lok Sabha, draws his council of the Minister from the same lower house, though sometimes even a Rajya Sabha member gets a Ministerila berth, on condition that he stands for election and wins a Lok Sabha seat within the next 6 months. The Parliament as a whole passes bills to chich the Preidents gives his approval an dthe become law. . Much like the U. S. federal system the country is divided into stateds, with each state beig managed ot politically administered by its state government. The states are roughly demarcated along linguistic lines, and they keep dividing and subdividing – three were added recently as a couple of years...
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