India Pakistan Foreign Policies

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The rapport between India and Pakistan since 1947 has been distressed and unfriendly, Marked by indiscriminating communal massacres at the time of partition of British India; three wars and countless trivial conflicts and clashes afterwards. One critical factor in this history has been the pre- partition heritage of the two political movements that dominated the political environment of India before and after independence- The Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. Most of the political and social concepts that dominated the ideology and psychology that controlled these two movements survived into the independence period and have not disappeared. This is particularly true of their intensely negative perceptions about each other. Many political analysts believe ,today India’s continued adversarial relations with Pakistan have resulted in India having to divert its scare financial, material and trained manpower resources for defence purposes, there for, to a great extent reducing its capabilities to implement social and economic policies for internal matters. This article seeks to go deeper into Indo- Pakistan’s relations with each other and study India’s policies towards its neighbour. History of Relations:

Timeline leading to Partition: 

1858 - The India Act: power transferred to British Government.

1905 - First Partition of Bengal for administrative purposes. Gives the Muslims a majority in that state.

1906 - All India Muslim League founded to promote Muslim political interests.

1909 - Revocation of Partition of Bengal. Creates anti-British and anti-Hindu sentiments among Muslims as they lose their majority in East Bengal. 

1919 - Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (implemented in 1921). Communal representation institutionalized for the first time as reserved legislative seats are allocated for significant minorities.

1930 - Dr. Allama Iqbal, a poet-politician, calls for a separate homeland for the Muslims at the Allahabad session of the Muslim League. 

1931 - Irwin-Gandhi Pact, which gives in to Gandhi's demands at the Round Table conferences and further isolates Muslim League from the Congress and the British. 

1940 - Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in an independent and partitioned India. 

1942-43 -Muslim League gains more power: ministries formed in Sind, Bengal and North-West Frontier Province and greater influence in the Punjab.

1944 - Gandhi released from prison. Unsuccessful Gandhi-Jinnah talks, but Muslims see this as an acknowledgment that Jinnah represents all Indian Muslims.

1946 - Muslim League participates in Interim Government that is set up according to the Cabinet Mission Plan. 

1947 - Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's plan for partition of India, 3 June. - Partition of India and Pakistan, 15 August.
- Radcliffe Award of boundaries of the nations, 16 August. 

The twin brothers have a history of unique relations. There is much in common between Republic of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The diplomatic relations developed soon after independence but these relations did not ensure good friendship. The blaming process started soon after the inception of Pakistan when during the world’s biggest mass migration both states were unable to provide security to minorities. At that time there were 680 princely states and their future was to be decided according to their own will. The British divided the regions into “India” and “Pakistan alright but the partition basis seemed extremely hasty. It is not too much of a surprise that the newly formulated governments of 1947 both in India and Pakistan faced a host of complex territorial problems and disputes. The principles for the partition had been based on rather ambiguous grounds, particularly for the princely states namely Hyderabad, Junagadh and Kashmir. In theory each of them could have opted for independence but the political circumstances were such that most had no other option...
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