By Neeraj Kumar Mehra Research Scholar
An Essay Submitted to Professor. Ian Jobling Professor. Karl Lennartz Professor. Kostas Georgiadis
December, 2010 India
I. II. III. IV. V. VI.
India and the Olympic Movement Indian Olympic Association, formation and contribution India and Modern Olympic Games Recent developments in Olympic movement in India Conclusion Annexure
INDIA AND THE OLYMPIC MOVEMENT
Introduction The name India is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit 1 Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River. India is a country in South Asia2. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. The first known permanent settlements appeared about 8,500 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation. On 15 August 1947, the British Indian Empire was dissolved following which the Muslim-majority areas were partitioned3 to form a separate state of Pakistan. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and Pakistan and the death of about one million people On 26 January 1950, India became a republic and a new constitution came into effect under which India was established as a secular and a democratic country. India is federation with a parliamentary form of government. The Constitution of India, the longest and the most exhaustive among constitutions of independent nations in the world, came into force on 26 January 1950. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the World Trade Organization, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the East Asia Summit 4, the G20 and the G8+5;5 a member of the Commonwealth of Nations; and an observer state in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Sports in Indian History The history of sports in India dates back to the Vedic era. Physical culture in ancient India was fed by a powerful fuel: religious rites. There were some well-defined values like the mantra in the Atharva-Veda, saying," Duty is in my right hand and the fruits of victory in my left". In terms of an ideal, these words hold the same sentiments as the traditional Olympic oath: "For the Honour of my Country and the Glory of Sport. Traditional time: Traditionally, Indians have enjoyed various sporting activities and games. Sports history of India dates back to the Vedic era. Traces of the earliest sport activities such as hunting, swimming, boating, archery, horse riding, wrestling, martial arts, fishing and board games like chess, snakes and ladders etc can be seen from ancient bronze ware, paintings etc and finds mention in books such as the two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The origin and development of sports activities are closely related with the work, defense and entertainment of the time. Records says that games like, Chess, Snakes and Ladders, Kabbadi, Kho-Kho, playing cards, martial arts of 'Kalari Payattu' etc had originated as a sport in India. Now the most popular sports in India are Cricket and Football. In fact, Cricket has become a way of life with Indians and India has an impressive track record in cricket. Traditionally a number of games 1 2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanskrit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Asia 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_of_India 4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Asia_Summit 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G8%2B5
were popular - Kho-Kho, Kabbadi, Gulli- Danda, Wrestling, camel race, Vallamkali (boat race), pachisi are a few amongst them. Sports during British period The first recorded game in India took place between Calcutta Club of Civilians' and The Gentlemen of Barrackpore' in 1854. The Durand Cup is the oldest football competition in India. It was started by Sir Mortimer Durand in Shimla. The...