This report intends to track India’s development since independence and to also outline and examine the sustainability issues it is now facing. This report will examine the various areas in which India has developed including its industrialization and urbanization. It will also assess the major sustainable issues India faces outlining some methods of assessing these issues.
India: a geographical summary
India is a country in the subcontinent of South Asia in the larger continent of Asia. South Asia is made up of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. India is the dominant country in the subcontinent. India is the world’s second most populous country in the world with a rapidly expanding population of well over 1billion people. It is a vast country with many physical features ranging from the Himalayas in the north, to the Ganga valley in the east, to the Thar desert in the west. India has a mainly tropical climate but also has a typical monsoon climate with heavy rain from June to September and dry weather for the rest of the year, the country also has very warm weather for most of the year. India has many large metropolitan conurbations such as the capital Delhi (New Delhi), Kolkata and Mumbai.
India’s development since independence
European traders first came to Indian shores in 1498 with the arrival of European explorer Vasco Da Gama. India was under the control of many different colonial powers until the early eighteenth century when British rule fully came into place. The British remained in power until 1947 when India became an independent nation. British control left a lasting impact on India, in many ways impeding India’s development in some sectors. After independence India developed in many different ways which will be examined below.
Government: Indian governmental structured change rapidly after independence. It went from being a country within the British Commonwealth to a sovereign, secular country. India became a fully independent, secular state on the 26 November 1950 when the new constitution. The country developed into a democratic republic with a president, prime minister and a council of ministers, all who are elected by the public. India’s full title is the Republic of India and today it is the largest full democracy in the world. Agriculture: Before independence India was a country which relied heavily on agriculture. After independence this remained much the same, even today India ranks second worldwide in agricultural output. Agriculture and allied sectors like logging, forestry and fishing accounted for 18.6% of India’s GDP in 2005, employed 60% of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector in the country. Recently India has developed a rapidly growing agricultural biotech sector. According to a Rabobank report, the agri-biotech sector in India has been developing at an amazing 30 per cent since the last five years, and it is likely to sustain the growth in the future. India has massive potential in the agri-biotech sector with the possibility that the country will become a major grower of genetically modified rice and other genetically engineered crops. India has always been a major grower of cash crops such as tea, tobacco, coffee and spices while also being a world leader in exporting many varieties of fruit. Although India has developed many modern and innovative means of farming the agricultural sector in India remains synonymous with poverty. The majority of India’s farmers earn less than $2 (USD) per day growing rice on tiny family-owned plots.
Services: The services sector employs 23% of the Indian workforce and began its rapid development in the 1980s, this is in comparison with approx.4.5% in the 1960s. The stimulus for the spurt in growth in the services sector came from two main areas: a substantial stepping up of public...