India

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India
Matt Tribble
The University of South Dakota

Abstract
India is a low-to middle-income country that suffers from nutritional deficits and malnourishment throughout their country. The key issues that burden women’s health includes Anemia, which is low levels of hemoglobin in the blood, violence due to a male dominated society, and the maternal mortality rate. Tuberculosis is a continuous concern relevant to all genders and ages in India. India has taken excessive measures in producing the DOTS program in order to effectively control this burden of disease. The health of the children is an ongoing battle that is being countered through the education of mothers gaining knowledge in areas such as proper nutrition, breastfeeding, and environmentally hygienic areas for children in order to successful decrease the child mortality rate in India.

Key words: India, nutrition, child mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, anemia, DOTS, infant mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate, MDGs

Introduction
India is a developing low-to middle-income country that is located in Southeast Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, between the countries of Burma and Pakistan. India has the second highest population in the world, behind China, totaling a colossal 1.2 billion people. This nation is a low-to middle-income country because they currently, on average, have $3,700 Gross Domestic Product per capita. Nations that are considered low-to middle-income countries typically have a GDP per capita in between $1,026 to $4035. The health status of India is displayed by the life expectancy of individuals, infant mortality rates, and the leading cause of death. The life expectancy of males is approximately 66 years of age, comparable to that of Indian females at an average of 68.33 years. The infant mortality rate in India is a substantial 46.07 deaths per 1000 live births, and is the highest mortality rate in all regions of Southeast Asia. The leading cause of death in India is the coronary heart disease claiming 1.4 million lives each year, followed closely behind by diarrheal diseases claiming 1.2 million people each year respectively. However, taking into account all these deaths yearly, the population of India is still becoming larger growing 1.312 percent annually. The growing population of India is also not a high aging population either. The 65 years and older category only represents 5 percent of the population while the most productive aging category, 15 to 64 years of age, holds approximately 65 percent of the nation’s population. India’s population is also becoming more urbanized, or taking on the characteristics of a city, by a 2.4 percent annual rate of change. A mental illness that plagues India is the disease of depression. This disease is most common in women, due to the discrimination and violence they face at all stages of their lives (Central Intelligence Agency, 2012).

India is progressing towards an open-market economy, but still has traces of its autarkic policies from the past, which basically states that India doesn’t rely on imports to drive their economy. These policies, beginning in the early 1990’s, have enhanced India’s economic growth by 7 percent every year since 1997. However, in 2008 the economy decreased significantly but rebounded in 2010 due to the global financial crisis. Currently, India has the fourth highest GDP in relation to purchasing power parity, which is a great statistic because it is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. That essentially means India’s currently in an economic boom. Although, they’re related costs and consequences associated with people becoming ill and the well-being of the economy. If people are ill, more than likely in the most productive age category, they will not be able to be a part of the labor force which has detrimental effects to the economy (CIA, 2012). India has an economy that leans more towards the...
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