Inclusion in Education

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Chapter II
Review of Literature
In 1986 Madeline Will, Assistant Secretary in the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, introduced the Regular Education Initiative. (Dybvik, 2001) This initiative led to the inclusion of special education students in regular education classrooms. The Federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and its amendments make it clear that students with disabilities will be educated in mainstream or inclusion classrooms. Inclusion can be defined as providing specially designed instruction with classroom supports for students with special needs in the regular classroom setting. All schools across the country are now using the inclusion model. There are many challenges facing the regular education teacher in an inclusion classroom. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the challenges presented in creating an effective inclusion program on a middle school campus. The Attitude of School Personnel towards Inclusion

Research shows that the attitude of the school personnel towards the inclusion model is directly related to the effectiveness of the program. Through various surveys of regular education teachers, it has been found that most of these teachers are against mainstream education (Avramidis, Bayliss, & Burden, 2000). Some of this is based on fear and some on perceived capabilities of the teachers themselves. One of the most important factors regarding teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion is the level of support they receive. Without a solid support system from the administration on down, the attitudes toward inclusion will continue to be mixed. Burke and Sutherland (2004) believe that the attitudes of the teachers are the most important part of inclusion. This attitude is derived from years of pull-out programs in education. Monahan, Marino, and Miller (1996) believe that without the cooperation from parents, teachers, and administrators, inclusion will not be fully accepted on a...
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