IN WHAT WAY IS REPARATION PROVING TO BE A MAJOR PROBLEM FOR MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES? DISCUSS WHAT SHOULD BE THE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF AN EXPATRIATES TRAINING PROGRAM, DESIGNED TO ASSIST THE WESTERN EXPATRIATE ADJUSTING TO LIFE AND WORK IN ANOTHER CONTINENT.
Amongst many crises faced by multinational corporations comprises of both premature return of expatriates as a result of failed assignments, and the poor retention of returned expatriates due to failed repatriation. In order to minimise both the direct and indirect cost associated with expatriate failure, Multinational corporations these days are striving had t improve their capability to manage expatriates, before, during and after international assignments. This article seeks to highlights and discus the features of the expatriate training before embarking on such international assignments in order to minimize cost and take good advantage of what the host economy has to offer that will be beneficial to the home or parent organization.
With respect to the effect of globalization on organizations, they have been an increasing challenge as to using expatriates on international assignments to strategically complete decisive tasks. (Gregersen & Black 1996). The use of expatriates by multinational corporations may not only be for corporate control and expertise reason, but also to assist in the entrance into new market or to develop international management competencies. (Bird & Dunbar 1991, Boyacigiller 1991, Rosenzweig 1994, Shaffer, Harrison & Gilley 1999, Forster 2000). With the recognition of Human Resource Management problems as being more complex in the international environment, they is also a rise in evidences suggesting that International Human Resource Management is increasingly being recognized as a major factor of success or failure in international business. (Tung 1984, Dowling 1999, Hiltrop 1999). Therefore to counter such crisis in expatriate management, effective planning for the selection of expatriates for overseas assignment is paramount, secondly, plans upon return from international assignment for the expatriate. The many roles of International Human Resource Managers includes among others, the provision f professional counselling to assist employees and their families to deal with psychological problems that may arise as a result of hostage or an evacuation situation, to concentrate on their employees well being, also to address compensation, benefit issue, legal issues, health, safety and security issues of their employees. The primary cause of Expatriate failure is the errors encountered in the selection process. (Adler 1981, Tung 1981, Arthur & Bennet 1995, Harvey & Noviceivic, 2001). Selection process has been based on technical competence (Katz & Seifer 1996), forgetting other interpersonal factors of expatriates. Tung (1987) came up with four general categories of the selection process that contribute to expatriate success. They include; 1. Technical Competence on the job
2. Personality traits or relational abilities
3. Environmental variables
4. Family situation.
Ronen, (1989), added to the dimensions to expatriate selection process identified by Tung (1987). He outlined five factors and they include; 1. Job factor
2. Relational dimensions
3. Motivational state
4. Family situation
5. Language skill.
‘The international movement of human resources has generated the development of research which targets the adjustment of expatriates in the foreign cultures’ (Lee et al., 2005; 273). Aycan and Kanungo (1997) and Lee and Liu (2006) define an expatriate as ‘an employee who is sent by a multinational parent company on a work assignment to a foreign nation’. Expatriates management is a common feature of International Human Resource Management. This has been the practice for local organizations when opening offices across borders. (Groh and...
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