Improving Occupational Safety and Health Intervention

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Improving Occupational Safety & Health Interventions – A Comparison of Safety Self-Efficacy & Safety Stages of Change

Dissertation submitted to the faculty of Virginia Tech In partial fulfillment of the degree Doctor of Philosophy

CHARLES BLAKELY PETTINGER, JR.
Center for Applied Behavior Systems Department of Psychology Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Safety Performance Solutions, Inc. 610, North Main Street, Suite 228, Blacksburg Virginia, 24060 540.951.7233

Dissertation Examination Committee Members:

E. Scott Geller, Ph.D., Chair

Helen Crawford, Ph.D.

Jack Finney, Ph.D.

Al Prestrude, Ph.D.

Richard Winett, Ph.D.

Improving Intervention Effectiveness

ii

IMPROVING OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: A COMPARISON OF SAFETY SELF-EFFICACY & SAFETY STAGES OF CHANGE TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents _____________________________________________________________ ii The Impact of Occupational Injuries _____________________________________________ 1 Intangible Effects _________________________________________________________________ 2

History of Occupational Safety and Health ________________________________________ 4 The Beginning of Occupational Safety & Health________________________________________ 4 Governmental Influence____________________________________________________________ 5 Insurance Companies: The First Safety Consultants ____________________________________ 7

Traditional Safety & Health Interventions: Three “E”s of Safety ______________________ 8 Engineering/Human Factors ________________________________________________________ 9 Education/Training ______________________________________________________________ 11 Enforcement ____________________________________________________________________ 14 Discipline _____________________________________________________________________________14 Compliance ____________________________________________________________________________16

Psychological Models of Occupational Safety & Health _____________________________ 17 Occupational Safety and Health Verses Worksite Health Promotion ______________________ 18 Occupational Health _____________________________________________________________________19 Occupational Safety _____________________________________________________________________20 Actively Caring _________________________________________________________________________23

Models of Safety & Health _________________________________________________________ 24

Theoretical Bases for Proposed Research_________________________________________ 25 Social Cognitive Theory ___________________________________________________________ 26 Self-Efficacy ___________________________________________________________________________27 Outcome Expectancies ___________________________________________________________________28 Safety Education and Self-Efficacy/Outcome Expectancy ________________________________________29

Segmentation Techniques to Behavior Change ________________________________________ 30

Improving Intervention Effectiveness iii
Transtheoretical Model of Change __________________________________________________________30 Safety Stages of Change __________________________________________________________________32

Research Overview & Hypotheses __________________________________________________ 36

Method ____________________________________________________________________ 37 Overview _______________________________________________________________________ 37 Participants & Settings ___________________________________________________________ 38 Industrial Interview Sites _________________________________________________________________38 Pilot Company-A _______________________________________________________________________38 Pilot Company-B________________________________________________________________________39 Experimental Site-NP...
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