What Was Impressionism?
1. How did Impressionists get their name?
In 1874 a number of these painters bonded together and held an exhibition of their own. One of the pictures was an ‘Impression Sunrise’ by Monet. So the painters were called Impressionists in derision.
2. How did photography influence the development of Impressionism? Photography recently discovered thus freed the artist from historical recordings and at the same time brought an awareness of the beauty and worthiness as ‘subject’ of everyday things for the artist to capture on his canvas. Scenes are given high, low or unexpected viewpoints. Objects are cut by the edge of the frame.
3. Who were the Barbizon painters? How did they influence the Impressionists? The Barbizon School: A number of French artists including Millet and Rosa Bonheur, who chose to paint and etch peaceful realistic scenes and the common peasants going about their everyday tasks, congregated in the picturesque village of Barbizon not far from Paris. They studied nature and people in natural surroundings, but they painted their pictures in the studio.
The Barbizon painters, who rejected the artificiality of city like and took to the forests to paint, also made an impact on the young Impressionists looking for a new direction.
4. Why is Café Guerbois important?
In the 1860’s, the impressionists began meeting near Manet’s studio at Café Guerbois. He was the unofficial head of the twice-weekly meetings, which included Monet, Renoir, Degas, Alfred Sisley, Emile Zela and sometime Paul Cezanne, Camille Pissarro and others. Café Guerbois becomes the favourite centre of the Impressionists; Monet becomes a regular at the Café. Pissarro works at Bougival with Renoir, who has one work accepted by the Salon.
5. What does juxtapose mean?
Juxtapose: To place close together or side by side, especially for composition or contrast.
6. In your own words, explain how the impressionists applied their paint Technique: plein air, painting outdoors
Method of applying paint- Broken Colour: Juxtaposed pure colours side by side in short vigorous strokes allowing the viewer to mix colours visually. Objects lose sharp outlines but colours merge together to reproduce the object from a distance. Technique also gives the work a vibrating quality of light. Emphasis on light, sun and movement- results in sketch like quality. Is worked spontaneously, rapidly, little definition preliminary drawing.
7. Why would oil paint in tubes and portable easels make painting easier for the Impressionists? It would be much easier for the Impressionists because they have paint ready to and they use colours they couldn’t of made by hand. The portable easels meant they can carry their equipment around and paint where ever or whenever they wanted to.
Summarise (in point form) the information on each artist
Monet: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
* Monet’s art symbolises the Impressionists movements
* Trained in an art studio, had painting accepted in salon in 1865 * Experienced a period of deep depression, where he almost committed suicide, but was supported by his friend Bazille * Moved to London when the Franco-Prussian war broke out with Pissarro * Monet preferred to paint landscapes to people
* Some of his famous artwork include: ‘Haystacks’, ‘Rouen Cathedral’ and ‘The Gare St Lazane’. * Paintings show light changes. Monet worked outside painting rapidly and using vigorous strokes in broken colour technique * In 1883, Monet moved to the village of Giverny, west of Paris, and begun to establish a garden that became his subject until his death in 1926
Pissarro: Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
* Born in the West Indies and sent to school in Paris at the age of 11 * Had formal art training, in 1855 he was fascinated by an exhibition of paintings by Delacroix, Millet and Corot * Early paintings were dark, but gradually lightened and paint application became...
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