Many miscommunications arise not because people genuinely disagree but because they use symbols and words to mean different things and make different assumptions .The process of communication attempts to explain what happens when we communicate. Vasishth(2009:575) defined communication as “the transfer of message ,ideas and information in a manner that both sender and receiver understand it in the same sense .It is the process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended.” Kaul(2005:2) agrees that, “communication is a two way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas towards a mutually accepted direction or goal. ” This implies that communication is a transaction whereby participants together create meaning through the exchange of symbols .Locker (2006:217) assets the process of communication as ,”a systematic series of actions, operations or series of changes directed to some end .It consists of a series of elements which result in sharing meaning by sender and receiver.” Kaul(2005:2) views communication process as ,every message starts in the mind of the sender. The sender encodes a thought by selecting appropriate words, these are the symbols used to represent the object or idea in the mind. The message may also be an action without words. The words or action are then transmitted by sender to the receiver by means of speaking, writing or acting. The receiver gives meaning to the message by decoding it. This regards that, communication process has different functions which are used for effective communication to take place. In the process of communication where there is the sharing of the same meaning ,there are the following elements;sender,message,encoding,transmission,channel,noise,decoding,receiver and feedback. The diagram below simplifies what occurs when one person tries to communicate ideas to someone else. A model of two persons communicating with feedback, adopted from Adler (2009:8)
FEEDBACK In the diagram the sender interprets what he has perceived from the stimulus ,in the process of doing this there is intra personal communication which takes place in an individual for example questions like, why am I communicating?, what to communicate?.Then the sender selects the best way to put the ideas into words or gestures thus encoding. The message is then transmitted to the receiver through a channel which can be a telephone, e mail or oral communication .When receiving the message, the receiver perceives it, that is, sees ,hears or touches .Then he must decode it, thus extracting meaning from symbols which he interprets and then selects ideas, encodes and sends them back to the sender as feedback. On examining the process of communication each and every element has its important role .A close examination of these elements follows below. According to Adey and Andrews (1993:2) a sender is, “a person who initiates ,generates and sends the message.” They imply the sender as the source of communication, that communication process begins when the sender develops the idea or message he wants to transmit. The sender arranges the idea in the manner that can be understood by the receiver. The sender puts the idea into a symbol then transmit it through a channel to the destination and there is a lot of intrapersonal communication which takes place at this stage .Much of the focus of this topic is on developing the skills needed to successfully encode ideas into effective message. The model given shows that the message must have a direction. Fielding(2009:18) says ,”communication is not a...