Importance of Statistics in Society
(Lecturer: Statistics and Research Methodology)
Nepal Commerce Campus
Tribhuvan University
Kathmandu, Nepal
Email:drbhandari2012@gmail.com
Statistics plays a vital role in every fields of human activity. Statistics has important role in determining the existing position of per capita income, unemployment, population growth rate, housing, schooling medical facilities etc…in a country. The statistical tools like Index number, correlation, time series analysis, regression analysis, hypothesis testing, and multivariate analysis help to analysis data and predict about future. Now statistics holds a central position in almost every field like Industry, Commerce, Trade, Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Mathematics, Biology, Botany, Psychology, astronomy etc…, . So application of statistics is very wide. Statistics helps in providing a better understanding and exact description of a phenomenon of nature. It helps in proper and efficient planning of a statistical inquiry in any field of study by collecting an appropriate quantitative data. Statistics helps in understanding the nature and pattern of variability of a phenomenon through quantitative observations and helps in drawing valid inference, along with a measure of their reliability about the population parameters from the sample data. Statistics are the ‘straws out of which Economists have to make bricks’. Statistical data and their analysis are used to solve a variety of economic problems such as in consumption, production, distribution of income and assets, poverty, unemployment etc. These problems are described, compared and correlated by using statistics. Use of statistics in Economics has led to the formulation of many economic laws like Engel’s law of consumption, Pareto’s Laws of distribution of income etc.

...Subject Areas Use of Statistics
1. World of Sports • Enter results from the different tournaments around the world
• Research projects to improve the quality of the game and keep the fans interested
• provide analysis on players and team strategy, as well as tackle larger research projects
• statistical t tools include basic regression analysis, logistic regression, Monte Carlo simulation, classification, and hierarchical regression
2. Education •Statistics provides simple yet instant information on the matter it centers on.
• Statistical methods are useful tools in aiding researches and studies in different fields such as economics, social sciences, business, medicine and many others.
• Provides a vivid presentation of collected and organized data through the use of figures, charts, diagrams and graphs.
• Helps provide more critical analyses of information
3. Physical Sciences • in the sphere of physical science like physics, chemistry, botany etc. a large number of measurements are taken which are found to vary from actual results. Thus, to have an idea about the degree of accuracy maintained, statistical techniques are used together with the powerful tools of sampling, estimation, design of experiments etc.
4. Psychology • One must need to use statistics in psychology to document a behavioral reaction to a conditional stimuli and find a pattern or relation to a certain condition or stimulus. For example, one may need...

...IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICS
In today's world we are faced with situations everyday where statistics can be applied. Statistics can be used to determine the potential outcome of thousands of things where the human mind alone wouldn't be able to. Statistics benefits all of us because we are able to predict the future based on data we have previously gathered. Being able to predict the future not only changes our lifestyle but also helps us be more efficient and effective.
Statistics is the science of collection, analysis, and presentation of data. Statisticians contribute to scientific enquiry by applying their knowledge to the design of surveys and experiments; the collection, processing, and analysis of data; and the interpretation of the results.
Statisticians may apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a variety of subject areas, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, public health, psychology, marketing, education, and sports.
Many economic, social, political, and military decisions cannot be made without statistical techniques, such as the design of experiments to gain federal approval of a newly manufactured drug.
Statisticians provide crucial guidance in determining what information is reliable and which predictions can be trusted. They often help search for clues to the solution of a scientific mystery and sometimes keep investigators from being misled by false...

...techniques.
Firstly we look at data analysis. This approach starts with data that are manipulated or processed
into information that is valuable to decision making. The processing and manipulation of raw
data into meaningful information are the heart of data analysis. Data analysis includes data
description, data inference, the search for relationships in data and dealing with uncertainty
which in turn includes measuring uncertainty and modelling uncertainty explicitly.
In addition to data analysis, other decision making techniques are discussed. These techniques
include decision analysis, project scheduling and network models.
Chapter 1 illustrates a number of ways to summarise the information in data sets, also known as
descriptive statistics. It includes graphical and tabular summaries, as well as summary measures
such as means, medians and standard deviations.
Uncertainty is a key aspect of most business problems. To deal with uncertainty, we need a basic
understanding of probability. Chapter 2 covers basic rules of probability and in Chapter 3 we
discuss the important concept of probability distributions in some generality.
In Chapter 4 we discuss statistical inference (estimation), where the basic problem is to estimate
one or more characteristics of a population. Since it is too expensive to obtain the population
information, we instead select a sample from the population and then use the information in the
sample to infer the...

...Assigmnment 1
Question 1: Give a comprehensive account of the importance of Statistics to you (i) as a government agent, (ii) as a Public Administrator, (iii) as an individual
Statistics, is study of the systematic collection, organization, and interpretation of data. This includes the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. Is is therefore safe to say that Statistics, as a discipline, is the development and application of methods to collect, analyze and interpret data for future planning and problem solving.
The common goal of a statistical research project is to investigate causality, that is the is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect) where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variable on dependent variables or response. Modern statistical methods involve the design and analysis of experiments and surveys, the quantification of biological, social and scientific phenomenon and the application of statistical principles to understand more about the world around us. Since data are used in most areas of human endeavor, the theory and methods of modern statistics have been applied to a wide variety of fields.
i) As a Government Agent: As a government agent, Statistics...

...Organization of Terms
Experimental Design
Descriptive
Inferential
Population
Parameter
Sample
Random
Bias
Statistic
Types of
Variables
Graphs
Measurement scales
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
Qualitative
Quantitative
Independent
Dependent
Bar Graph
Histogram
Box plot
Scatterplot
Measures of
Center
Spread
Shape
Mean
Median
Mode
Range
Variance
Standard deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Tests of
Association
Inference
Correlation
Regression
Slope
y-intercept
Central Limit Theorem
Chi-Square
t-test
Independent samples
Correlated samples
Analysis-of-Variance
Glossary of Terms
Statistics - a set of concepts, rules, and procedures that help us to:
organize numerical information in the form of tables, graphs, and charts;
understand statistical techniques underlying decisions that affect our lives and well-being; and
make informed decisions.
Data - facts, observations, and information that come from investigations.
Measurement data sometimes called quantitative data -- the result of using some instrument to measure something (e.g., test score, weight);
Categorical data also referred to as frequency or qualitative data. Things are grouped according to some common property(ies) and the number of members of the group are recorded (e.g., males/females, vehicle type).
Variable - property of an object or event that can take on different values. For example, college major...

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...

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