DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENTSCIENCES
TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
This paper reflects on the application of the nine knowledge areas of Project Management. How relevant, effective and efficient are the knowledge areas in address the challenges faced by project implementation in modern project undertakings.
The knowledge areas are defined in relation to the project world. Literature review, as indicated by the project specialist and authors is looked at and critiqued in the discussion of this paper. Final conclusion show that
The writing of this paper was done with the acknowledgement of the fellow team mates, namely: Mr. M Makhunga; Mr. F Maifadi and Mr. S Sindane. Special thanks also to Professor JM Ndambuki for supervising this paper.
KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Deliverables - These are the outcomes of the project phases or project milestones.
TQM - Total Quality Management: This is an organization’s quality plan.
QA - Quality Assurance
QC - Quality Control
SANRAIL - South African National Road Agency Limited
Steyn et al (2010), describes a Project as ‘any planned, temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or other complete and definite outcome within limited time scale and with limited resources’. Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements.
Project Management is therefore the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. According to Project Management Institute (1996), there are nine (9) knowledge areas in Project Management, namely:
•Integration Management - includes the processes required to ensure that elements of the project are coordinated. •Scope Management - includes processes needed to ensure project includes all the work required. It focuses on defining and controlling what is in the works and what is excluded from the works. •Time Management - This focuses on processes required to making sure that project is completed within budgeted time. •Cost Management - This includes the process required to ensure that the project is achieved within the approved budget. •Quality Management - It entails processes that are required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was intended. It also includes all activities of the overall management function that determine the policy on quality, the objectives and the responsibilities and implementation thereof. •Human Resource Management - This entails processes required to make the most effective use of the available personnel or people involved in a project. It encompasses all the stakeholders. •Communications Management - Includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, overall handling of the project information. •Risk Management - It concerned with identifying, analyzing and response to risk involved and anticipated in project. •Procurement Management - This one looks at processes involved in acquiring goods and services from suppliers at reasonable time and price.
All these components work together to achieve a successful project implementation plan and ultimately execution. This paper looks at the important roles played by each one of these knowledge areas in a project.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Project Management is most effective when applied in a consistent repetitive manner in the form of a process. A project management process contains four phases: •Initiation
Each project phase is named in relation to the major deliverables produced in those phases. A deliverable is tangible, verifiable work products like the feasibility study for instance....