Importance of Physics

Page 1 of 22

Importance of Physics

By | September 2011
Page 1 of 22
CHAPTER 1 IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICS OF SMALL PARTICLES Page NO. 1.1 Introduction 2 3

1.2 Importance of small particle research 1.3 Existing knowledge 1.4 Work undertaken in the present study References

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1 1 Introduction .
Scientists have been dealing with particles of

diameters in the range 1-100 nm in dispersed systems, which are referred to as colloidal particles, of in since the founding only

the colloid chemistry in the 1860s. However, it is the last 25 years we have been able to study

individual also

particles referred

of this size. Presently these particles are to as small particles,

nanoparticles, ultrafine has

particles, microcrystals and microclusters. Much effort

been put by many scientists to investigate the properties of these these particles. The result has been the discovery that or

particles have properties not.displayed by larger collection of atoms or molecules, properties

smaller

that (1). is

suggest many scientific and technological applications The due may growing interest in the physics of small to the expectation that investigation on lead to extremely valuable particles such

systems at the

information

microscopic different state

level. Atoms in a cluster have, in surrounding with respect to those

general, a the bulk

in

(2-4). Many quantities such as

temperature,

surface in

tension,

surface area and even the volume that are used

the description of macroscopic systems become ill-defined as the cluster size decreases (3,4). Therefore, many

difficulties are encountered in calculating the of small particles from classical

properties

thermodynamic

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considerations ( 2 , 3 ) .

Numerous experimental and

theoretical

studies have been made to investigate the various...