Curriculum planning involves making a series of choices (Saylor, Alexander and Lewis, p. 27) In the process of curriculum planning the three bases of curriculum should be considered these bases are society, learner and knowledge. Each of these bases is equally important and cannot be neglected. They are like three legs of a tripod stand, if one leg is bigger than the other than the tripod cannot stand. Similarly each of these bases cannot be given more importance over than the other all have equal importance. Society can be understood through Sociology, Learner can be understood by Psychology and Knowledge can be understood through Philosophy. Thus in order to plan curriculum the foundations of curriculum play a major role.
Print (1993) defines curriculum foundations as those that influence and shape the mind of curriculum developers. These curriculum foundations can be categorized under three that is (i) philosophy, (ii) psychology and (iii) sociology. These foundations influence developers’ way of thinking about curricula and in the process, produce conceptions of curricula. The importance of three foundations in planning the curriculum is discussed as under.
Philosophy is basic to all curriculum foundations as it is concerned with making sense of what we encounter in our lives. It is concerned with the clarification of concepts in which our experiences and activities are intelligible (Print, 1993, pp. 33-34). Curriculum developers perceive the world by asking themselves three questions: ontological (What is real?), epistemological (What is good?) and axiological (What is true?) Answers to these questions, emerge different individual philosophies through which individuals perceive and relate to the curriculum.
Ontology is concerned with the nature of reality and asks the question: What is real? Different societies perceive reality in different ways. Thus important when what is real to society is very... [continues]
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