The chapter discusses the rationale, and the different theories evolve in this study.
When the United Nation declared the year 1985 as the International Youth year, youth welfare and other concern for young came to open to catch the world’s attention. This leads to benchmark reforms in global and national policies. It is undeniable that any nations must consider that the youth populace plays a vital role in the quest for progress. It is not the size of youth in the population that matters but it should focus on the way we mold them for the future strength and the development of the nation.
The Philippines has relatively high young populations. Statistics shows that twenty percent (20%) of the total population comprises the youth and it is expected to increased by 2.1% annually and will double after 30 years. A total of 5,825,425 children and youth are at risk and 11, 317 of them are children in conflict with the law. A recent study revealed that there are about 246,011 streets children in 22 major cities in the countries. These children are susceptible to malnutrition, illness, drug abuse, exploitations, gambling and harassment. They also tend to join gangs as a form of protection. Juvenile crime and delinquency is something that is a highly discussed issue these days. With the rise of juvenile crime across the world and the repeating episodes of such crimes certainly suggest that something needs to be done, some effective steps must be taken to curb this menace down. There are several legislations being pushed and approved by Congress, the latest of which is the Comprehensive Juvenile Justice System or better known as Republic Act 9344 (RA 9344). After its implementation last April 2006, crimes involving juveniles increased by 18% in 2008 based on PNP records. ( http://newsinfo.inquirer.net) Also last August 2010, Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) expresses alarms on the continuous involvement of juveniles even in high profile crimes. Even selected City Mayors negatively reacts on the implementation of Republic Act 9344 (RA 9344). Thus, it is for this reason that this study which aim to measure the implementation of RA 9344: its impact to crime rates will be conducted.
Juvenile Delinquency and Criminal Behavior
Classical criminology stresses that causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment. Classical theories state that "juveniles are rational, intelligent people who have free will - the ability to make choices." Crime is the result of people making choices, such as breaking the law. According to rational choice theory, "because behavior is a conscious decision children make, they may be held responsible for their choices and their consequences."
According to Freud in his psychoanalytic theory that, an imbalanced traits caused by a traumatic early childhood can produce damage in adolescent. Ericks advocated that theory of Freud and speculated that many adolescent experiences in life crises in which they feel emotional, impulsive and uncertain of their role and purpose.
Lombroso explains in his Biological Theory that criminal behaviors are claimed that gem of “moral insanity and criminality are normally formal at the early stage of human life”. Forrington’s theory verified this in his Age Theory that age is an important determinant of crime and that there are factors directly associated with age.
The Juvenile Delinquency and Welfare Act of 2006 (R.A. 9344)
April 2006 the time when R. A. 9344 was inacted. Section 1 of RA9344 states that Act shall be known as the "Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006." It shall cover the different stages involving children at risk and children in conflict with the law from prevention to rehabilitation and reintegration. This act is in consonance with Article 40 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the...