Implementation of Environmental Management System in China Chinese industry has been undergoing rapid development over the past 60 years, transforming from a backward nation to an economic power (Jin, 2010). However, the industrial growth has come at the expense of the environmental deterioration, thus, to build the image of a great power, the environmental protection has become the primary national policy (UNEP-IETC, 2003). Particularly, the principle of Chinese legislation and rules on environment are in consistency with that of ISO14000, and China also attracted a substantial number of foreign investments, which provided advanced management tools and operations to implement ISO14000 (UNEP-IETC, 2003). Therefore, with such a solid basis, Chinese government encourages companies and organizations to work on the environmental management systems (UNEP-IETC, 2003). The ISO14000 series provide the companies and the organizations practical standards to evaluate and modify their environmental performances, and also imply the ecological use of energy (Conway, 1996). ISO14001 is one of these standards to develop the environmental management system (EMS) to assist the organizations in controlling and reducing harmful environmental impacts caused by their products, services or activities (Environmental Management System Consultants, 2010). With the certificates of ISO14001, the companies or organizations are often affirmed for their environmental management efforts (Environmental Management System Consultants, 2010). Since the first certificate was presented in 1996 to Xiamen ABB, China has built a set of mature environmental management system with thousands of Chinese companies and organizations from various industries are working well on the EMS implementation (China Quality Certification Center, 2006). The EMS in China will be introduced in the following paragraphs, additionally, the related regulations and legislation will be given as well. Government Behavior:
Among all the ISO14000 standards, the ISO14001 is often considered as the foundation, so Chinese government has been working strongly on promoting the implementation of it (Environmental Management System Consultants, 2010). Chinese government provides the support in three main aspects: mandatory policy, encouraging policy and supporting policy (Zeng, Tam, Tam and Deng, 2003). Mandatory policies are established to tackle the environmental problems, many laws of environment protection are enacted, for instance, Water protection Act, Air Pollution Act, Solid Wastage Pollution Protection Act and Ocean Environment Protection Act, and these ordinances provide the practitioners with the guidelines to establish their protection system (Zeng, Tam, Tam and Deng, 2003). For the encouraging policy, Chinese government provides short-term subsidies or soft loans to fund state-owned large and medium-sized enterprises in technological check for decreasing the polluted and hazardous sources, meanwhile, the government closes down many small-sized enterprises with obsolete equipment and technology (Zeng, Tam, Tam and Deng, 2003). The supporting policy is shown where training courses and seminar are organized by government to improve the environmental awareness of EMS, and it gives the leader of firms confidence that the implementation of EMS is a win-win (Zeng, Tam, Tam and Deng, 2003). Company Behavior:
If a company applies for the ISO14001 certification, its EMS with top management involved is required to be operated before sending the application to the certification bodies (Environmental Management System Consultants, 2010). The certification center will audit the documents of the company of compliance with the environmental legislation and rules, the evidence of the discharged wastes treatment, and the designed system for its adjustment of preventative action (UNEP-IETC, 2003). However, the requirement for EMS of the companies is very flexible, because companies are from a wide...
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