Implementation of Distributed Generation in the Dutch Lv Network

Topics: Electricity generation, Electricity distribution, Electric power transmission Pages: 95 (31547 words) Published: April 13, 2013
Implementation of Distributed Generation in the Dutch LV Network| Towards a Self-Supporting Residential Area|


1. Summary4
2. Introduction8

Part A: Background Information
3. New Scenario of Distributed Generation10
3.1 Opportunities10
3.2 Challenges for the network operator11
3.3 Alternative Operational Approach13

Part B Case Study Approach
4. The Integrated System15
4.1 The low voltage network16
4.2 The Generators17
4.2.1 Stirling Engine Combined Heat and Power17
4.2.2 Photovoltaic Arrays18
4.3 Battery energy storage18
5. The Scenarios20
6. The Energy Balance23
6.1 Demand-Side23
6.2 Supply-Side23
6.2.1 Heat Supply24
6.2.2 Electricity Supply24
6.3 Battery Energy Storage26
7. The Assessment27

Part C: Case Study Results
8. The Energy Balance29
8.1 Demand-Side29
8.1.1 Heat Demand29
8.1.2 Electricity Demand34
8.1.3 Heat and Electricity Demand Profiles35
8.2 Supply-Side36
8.2.1 Heat Supply37
8.2.2 Results Heat Supply40
8.2.3 Electricity Supply42
8.2.4 Results Electricity Supply45
8.3 Battery Energy Storage47
8.3.1 Peak Power48
8.3.2 Capacity49
9. The Assessment52
9.1 Reversed power flow53
9.2 System Losses54
9.3 Voltage levels55
9.4 Transformer loads57
10. Discussion58
10.1 Generator Control58
10.2 Storage Control59
10.3 Increase photovoltaic power60
10.4 Question Marks61

11. Conclusion62
12. Recommendations64


Appendix A Demand-Side68
Appendix A1 Heat Demand68
Appendix A2. Electricity Demand68
Appendix A3. Sources Demand Surveys69
Appendix B (Heat-)Power Balance69
Appendix C. Electrical Power Profiles Detached House70
Appendix D Vision Macro73
Appendix E Battery Energy Storage76
Appendix E.1 Average scenario in January76
Appendix E2 Average scenario in April77
Appendix E3 Average scenario in July78
Appendix E4 Average scenario in October79
Appendix F Reverse Power flow80
Appendix G Voltage levels80

1. Summary
The self-supporting residential area is seen as an alternative operational approach of the power supply system. The intention of the new approach is to exploit the advantages of distributed generation and avoid the difficulties, that come with distributed generation when implemented in the distribution network, by balancing power supply and demand efficiently in close proximity to each other in the low voltage network that can easily be controlled and isolated from the upper grid. This case study verifies statements about the alternative operational approach by calculating reverse power flow, voltage levels, system losses, cable and transformer loads of a well-designed self-supporting residential area in the low voltage (LV) network containing combined heat and power (CHP), photovoltaic (PV) arrays and storage devices with a simulation program ‘Vision Network Analysis’ Part A: The new scenario of distributed generation

* Section 3.1: The Opportunities
The architecture of the electrical network developed over the past century is based on the concept that the entire power supply is based on very large central power plants [16]. Over the last years, the attention towards distributed generation as alternatives to centralized generation has increased [17]. The most important reasons for a possible increase of distributed generation in the near future are the following assumed advantages assigned to distributed generation in literature: low-cost entry into a competitive market, the exploitation of renewable energy sources, increased efficiency through used waste heat, efficient use of the demographic environment, low transmission and distribution losses, stabilised voltage levels, increased reliability of the power supply, reduced cable loads and transformer loads [12][19][20][21]. * Section 3.2: Challenges for the...
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