AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT AND MANAGEMENT OF FISH AND SHRIMP DISEASE IN BANGLADESH, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON SMALL-SCALE AQUACULTURE M.A. Mazid and A.N.H. Banu
Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute
Mazid, M.A., and A.N.H. Banu. 2002. An overview of the social and economic impact and management of fish and shrimp disease in Bangladesh, with an emphasis on small-scale aquaculture. p. 21-25. In: J.R. Arthur, M.J. Phillips, R.P. Subasinghe, M.B. Reantaso and I.H. MacRae. (eds.) Primary Aquatic Animal Health Care in Rural, Small-scale, Aquaculture Development. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 406.
In Bangladesh, increasing population pressure, with increased demand for fish, has made fisheries a lucrative sector for the present generation. Fish culture in the country has been progressing towards semi-intensive culture, while shrimp culture moves towards an improved traditional system. However, indiscriminate and unplanned use of feed and fertiliser, with subsequent effects on water quality in pond ecosystems correspondingly increases stress on fish and accelerates susceptibility to pathogens. The effects of disease in improved culture systems are significant; however, proper systematic information on disease outbreaks is not yet available. The most obvious effect of the occurrence of disease is mortality, followed by economic losses. Mass mortalities of carp fry and fingerlings due to protozoan and metazoan parasites are frequently reported. A small initial infection gradually leads to a serious outbreak of disease, resulting in large mortalities and great economic loss for small-scale farmers. The most common disease problem in the country is epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). There is a lack of technical knowledge in the management of shrimp farming. In Bangladesh, outbreaks of disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) (reported as systemic epidermal and mesodermal baculovirus -SEMBV) alone caused a 44.4% production loss in 1996; although the incidence of outbreaks has reduced considerably since then. It has been estimated that the shrimp culture industry provides direct employment to some 350,000 persons, who are engaged in fry collection and transportation, nursery and grow-out operations, and handling and processing. It is obvious that disease outbreaks in fish and shrimp culture systems have a great impact on low-income groups.
Aquaculture production continues to expand in an attempt to meet the needs of developing countries like Bangladesh. However, population pressure and a shortage of alternative employment opportunities in the country increase the attraction of fisheries as a form of employment. Bangladesh faces many challenges and constraints in the sustainable management of aquatic resources. Aquaculture production in the country has been facing problems from outbreaks of disease, lack of up-to-date management practices, and lack of awareness on the part of fish growers. Information on emerging problems needs to be communicated to the aquaculture and fisheries sector. Freshwater Fish
There is widespread agreement that there is a need to enhance the contribution that fisheries makes to national economic, social and nutritional goals. Fish culture in Bangladesh has been progressing towards semi-intensive culture, and inland fisheries, especially freshwater fish, are exploited for local consumption. Some 43 million ha is used for inland fisheries, of which ponds and tanks cover an area of 147,000 ha. Indiscriminate and unplanned use of feed and fertiliser and overstocking increase stress on fish and increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The effects of disease on improved culture systems are significant, however, outbreaks of disease are poorly reported and documented. The most obvious effect of disease is mortalities in the fish population, followed by economic losses. Although the country is facing serious...
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