Impact of Tourism

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Tourism, as in other industries, has three interconnected aspects: environment, socio-cultural, and economic. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of tourism in relation to these areas.

Tourism is defined as ‘the temporary movement of people to destinations beyond their normal place of work and residence; the activities undertaken while there; and the facilities created to meet their needs.’ (Bliss & Pain 2005, p. 295) Now in our world tourism is the fastest growing industry. In 2002 more than 700million people travelled the world, and in 2010 the number will increased to 1billion. With international transport becoming more and more convenient and people’s income increasing people have more free time; more people will travel abroad. Maybe one day tourism will become to the largest industry in the world. This essay will look at the advantage and disadvantage of tourism on the environment, economy and socio-cultural.

There are some positive effects of tourism in the environment. Firstly, the environmental infrastructure can increase though tourist money used by governments. (Kreag 2001, p. 8) The government can use this money to protect and improve our environment. They build places like national parks and natural reserves to protect animals and natural or man-made environment. Then local natural or man-made environments like historical buildings, mountains and reefs can be enhanced and protected to attract more tourists to come. In mountain gorillas of Africa, one lion can made $7000 tourist income every year and a group of elephant’s value are more than $600000. (Bliss & Pain 2005, p. 300) Most of the money is used to make the environment better and to construct the base infrastructure. Secondly, when tourists come the government or supervisors of the parks can teach them how important the environment it is, and how to protect the environment when they travel. (United National Environment Program 2001, p. 2) To protect the environment is not only the job of government but also the responsibility of everyone. The Blue Mountain, Australia, people are being educated to take their own rubbish away with themselves rather than throw it in the mountain. (Impacts of tourism, 2001) This is a good example for how people are educated to protect the environment.

On the other hand because of travel, tourists waste a lot of energy, water, land and produce pollutions like air pollution, rubbish, waste and water pollution. (Kreag 2001, p. 8) Tourism can also destroy an environment. Over exploitation or over carrying capacity can destroy the natural environment or make the man-made environment unpleasant to live in. In Mediterranean, every summer more than 100 million tourists come, and as The United Nation’s forecast in 2025 the number of tourists to visit The Mediterranean probability could increase to 760 million. (Baker 2000, p. 20) Now in most countries near the coastline all of the coastlines have already been exploited and the Mediterranean now will become the dirtiest sea in our world. Another effect of tourism is when tourists travel to a places especially natural areas like beaches, mountains, the developer often build a lot of buildings. Some buildings like hotels, golf courses are need a huge land and water. (Goa under siege, 1999) Local people have not enough water to use, trees have been chopped, and beaches have been destroyed just because of tourist’s waste. Some place like in Great Barrier Reef, the corals is degraded because of people go dive and boating, they destroy the corals everyday. Maybe in 10 years time we will never see the beautiful corals again.

Tourism industry is the fastest growing industry in the world. It provides a lot of job opportunities for the local people to increase their income and standard of living. (Kreag 2001, p. 6) Some countries like Indonesia, Singapore most of local people are living for the tourism instead of traditional farming, they get more money than before and get a...
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