Alcohol and other drug use among our nation’s youth remains a major public health problem (CDC, 2012). Substance use and abuse can increase the risk for injuries, violence, HIV infection, and other diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) . A number of environmental risk factors have been implicated in the development of adolescent alcohol and drug use behaviors (Nation, M., & Heflinger, C. 2006). During the past, more than a few years there has been a national concern about drug abuse, culminating in the current "war on drugs" (American Psychologist, 1989). Young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an collection of problems, including academic difficulties, health-related problems (including mental health), and behavior (Ann H. Crowe, 1998) . A study conducted in 1988 in Washington, D.C., found youth who sell and used drugs were more likely to commit crimes than those who only sold drugs or only used drugs (Altschuler and Brounstein, 1998).
Substance use has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities ( Healthy People. Gov, 2012). The effects of substance abuse are cumulative, radically contributing to valuable social, physical, mental, and public health problems (US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Healthy People 2010 midcourse review, 2012 ). Drinking and drug use have been linked to motor vehicle accidents, fighting, challenging relationships and social interactions, and various diseases (Family Adolescence and Youth, 2007). Like self-injurious behaviors, the frequency of alcohol and cigarette use has decreased over the last few years, but however continues to be serious risks to adolescent health(Family and Adolescence & Youth, 2007). Illicit drug use is both a health and public concern because of the obvious negative physical effects it has on users (FamilySolutionSteenHelp,2012). Effects of illicit drug use include brain damage and damage to major physical organs (Adolescence & Youth, 2007).
It also has been linked to a host of other health compromising behaviors such as risky driving, rendezvous in high-risk sexual behaviors, and violence (Adolescence & Youth, 2007). Substance use has become a serious concern, although there are many ways of viewing adolescent substance use (Journal of Dug Education 2008) . The family influences has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection ( Journal of Drug Education, Pub Med. Gov. 2008). A review of the literatures indicated relevant theories for understanding adolescent substance use and specific family-based variables influencing adolescent substance use (Journal of Drug Educ. 2008). In general, there seems to be a relationship between adolescent substance use and family-based risk and protective factors. Alcohol and drug abuse is a leading cause of teen death or injury related to car crashes, suicides, violence, and drowning. Both alcohol and tobacco use are common among teenagers in the United States. According to results of a 1999 survey (Johnston et al. 2000), 24 percent of 8th graders, 40 percent of 10th graders, and 51 percent of 12th graders reported drinking alcohol within the past month ( Linda Blaser, 2012 ). For example, according to the study’s findings, 18 percent of 8th graders, 26 percent of 10th graders, and 35 percent of 12th graders reported smoking cigarettes during the months before the survey, and only 8 percent of 8th graders, 16 percent of 10th graders, and 23 percent of 12th graders reported smoking cigarettes on a daily basis (Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. , 2012). These survey results indicate that the prevalence of both alcohol use and tobacco use increases with age. Therefore, prevention programs should target youth before or during junior high school. The compulsive use of drugs and alcohol by teenagers is one of the most...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document