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Impact of Stress

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Critically evaluate the extent to which managers can reduce employee stress. Introduction
An organizational stress can be defined as, “an intervening psychological process that link exposure to work-related problems to the negative impact of those problems” (Arnold, Randall et al. 2010, pg. 197) Organisational stress has an impact on both the performance of individual as well as the organisation. As quoted by Beehr and Franz (1987) in O’Driscoll and Cooper (2002), Organisational stress can be explained on a three dimensions, as a resisting force applied physically or psychologically to an environmental stimulus or as an interaction between two events such as chronic circumstances like the nature of job, or job targets. The second dimension is the person’s response to a particular stressor and it exists within a person. The third dimension is the antecedents and strain is a consequence of a stressful transaction. A work related stress can happen due to various aspects within work environment like the demand-control model (Karasek, 1979) while some happen due to a mismatch between organizational expectations/requirements and rewards, like effort-reward imbalance model (Siegrist, 1996) or demand supply equilibrium of available resources and appraisal expectations and the actual reality. (Caulfield et.al, 2004) A stress affects an individual in a 3 stage process, where the introduction of stress creates an alarm stage, an individual tries to resist the change and stress at the resistance change, and if the stress overpowers the individual, it’s the exhaustion stage ultimately resulting into a burnout. This essay will chiefly focus on the types of interventions which managers use to reduce the employee stress mainly the organisation level intervention, individual-organisation level and the individual level. Which can be emphasized by the primary intervention which focus on changing the basic working environment or changing the policies of the organisation, making it...