Impact of Portuguese Estado Da India

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  • Topic: Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan, Jahangir
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MANSABDARI SYSTEM IN MUGHAL DYNASTY

Mansab was the generic term for the military type grading of all imperial officials of the Mughal empire.The mansabdars governed the empire and commanded its armies in the emperor’s name.The term is derived from Mansab, meaning rank.Hence,Mansabdari literally means rank-holder.Basically,the mansabdar system was borrowed from Persia.It was prevalent during the reign of Babur and Humayun.Mansabdar was a title used in the armed services of the Mughal empire.The term is derived from Mansab, standing for rank,mansabdar literally means a rank holder in military.A mansabdar was engaged in the service of the state and was obligated to render service.The mansabdars formed a military aristocracy which proved an admirable instant in the organization of Chengiz and Timur.

The“ mansab” meant rank.Different numbers which could be divided by ten were used for ranking officers.It was also meant for fixing the salaries and allowances of officers.Since,the mansabdars of the mughal empire received their pay either in cash(naqd) or in the form of assignments of areas of land(jagir) from which they were entitled to collect the land revenue and all other taxes sanctioned by the emperor,the mansabdar system was also an integrated part of the agrarian and the jagirdari system.

This system introduced by Akbar .It was a unique feature of the administrative system of the Mughal Empire.The term mansab (i.e.officer,position,rank)in the mughal administrative indicated the rank of its holder(mansabdar) in the official hierarchy.It was of central Asian origin.According to one view Babur brought it to North India. DEVELOPMENT OF MANSABDARI SYSTEM-

During the reign of Akbar, the lowest rank was that of number ten and the highest was that of twelve thousand.The mansab above five thousand and later on that of seven thousand was given only to princes of royal blood.Jahangir and Shahjahan awarded mansab to their officers upto the number only three thousand while royal princes were given mansabs upto the number of forty thousand.Akbar introduced the mansabdari system in the mughal army which primarily meant the ranking of officers on decimal system.Mansabdari system was the novelty of army organisation of the mughals.It was introduced by Akbar and was kept as it was with minor changes upto the reign of Aurangzeb.

The later mughals gave mansabs upto number of fifty thousand.All officers below the rank of the mansab of five hundred were called mansabdars,the officers enjoying the mansab from five hundred to two thousand five hundred were called amir-i-azam and amir- i-umda.Some historians described,that the mansabdars were required to maintain soldiers equivalent to the number of rank awarded to them.Classification of mansab which has been highlighted with chengiz khan who had divided his army 10-10000.In this matter any thing cannot be said how many horsemen were kept by any mansab,because Jama was being exaggrated.

When state got information about the situation of the agriculture and economy.Akbar took decision to control the situation which was quite different from written statements in the office.The main motto behind this was to implement dagh system.It means every mansabdar had to got registered his documents for face.Number of horses and their quality was checked and those who was not able to fulfill the criteria they were punished.

According to badauni,who was also mansabdar of twenty rank.First mansab was given mansab of 20.So that he could serve the palace according to the situation.Aamir opposed dagh system and they were not ready for special sign which had been given to their horses.During dagh system create small aamir had taken power in their hand.Sometimes they used it to disturb reputted aamir, some shahi diwans who adopted hard ways due to this agitation happened in Bengal and Bihar in 1580 for which Akbar tried to remove this.Day by day dagh system was going...
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