Philip Mah Koon Yue
Mohananda a/l Anantha Krishnan
Ahmad Saeed Abood
Eleanor Hang Lee Shean
Chan Jun Hoe
School of Engineering
23 March 2011
Table of Content
2. Experiment Design
2.2 Methods & Procedures
3. Results and discussion
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
The experiment was conducted to find the impact of water on different types of vanes, it consists of 3 types the flat plate, conical cup and the hemispherical cup. Forces are generated by jet of water impacts the vanes that produces various angles of deflection. In the end the slope calculated was used to compare with the theoretical slope and the deviation slope was calculated.
One of the ways of producing mechanical work from fluid under pressure is to use the pressure to accelerate the fluid at high velocity in a jet. The jet is directed on the vanes of a turbine wheel, which is rotated by the force generated on the vanes due to the momentum change or impulse which takes place as the jet strikes the vanes. Water turbines working on this impulse principle have been constructed with outputs of the order of 100,000 kW and with efficiencies greater than 90%. There are mainly two objectives for this experiment, first of which is to measure the force generated by impact of the jet on vanes of various shapes. Second is to compare the results from the experiment with the theoretical calculations. In this experiment, the force generated by a jet of water as it strikes a flat plate, conical plate, and hemispherical cup may be measured and compared with the momentum flow rate in the jet. 2.0Experiment Design
3 Different shapes of plates – A total of 3 different plates are used for this experiment, a flat plate, a conical plate, and a hemispherical cup. Water is deflected from these plates at various angles.
Stopwatch – A stopwatch in this experiment is used to measure the time taken for when the water impacts the different plates
Jet Impact Apparatus with hydraulic bench - This apparatus was manufactured by Tecquipment Ltd located at Bonsall Street Long Eaton Nottingham NG10 2AN England. The voltage of the apparatus is 230V, current of 1A and frequency of 50Hz This apparatus is used to determine the force when water impacts either the flat plate, conical plate or the hemispherical cup. When water is pumped through the nozzle and it impacts the plate, the force can be determined through the high velocity of water collide with the weight beam together with the jockey weight.
Diagram 1. Impact of jet apparatus
2.2 Methods and procedures
The experiment first started by using the flat plate which is screwed to the impact of jet apparatus, the apparatus is firstly leveled and the lever is set to the balanced position with indication to the tally, and the jockey weight at its zero position. The water is admitted first then the water pump was switched on later.
Water is admitted through the bench supply valve. The rate of flow was adjusted to the maximum and the position of the jockey weight which restores the lever to the balanced position was noted.
A series of 5 readings with a spacing difference of 0.20 meters was used to position the jockey weight, and then taken by decreasing...