Impact of Internet in Library and Information Science

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THE INTERNET|

DEFINITION
What is Internet?
* “the mother of all networks”
* It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. * Also known as “net”

* INTERnational NETwork
* Worldwide computer network that connects hundreds of thousands of smaller networks. * It is a system of interconnected computers all over the world that enables them to store information with each other.

BACKGROUND
How did the Internet get started?
The history of the Internet begins in 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first man – made satellite. In response to this display of Soviet superiority, the U.S. government resolved to improve its scientific and technical infrastructure. One of the resulting initiatives was the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ARPA swung into action with a project designed to help scientists communicate and share valuable computer resources. The ARPAnet, created in 1969, connected computers at UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, University of Utah, and University of California at Santa Barbara. In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF) used ARPAnet technology to create a larger network, linking not just a few mainframe computers, but entire LANs at each site. Connecting two or more networks creates an internetwork, or internet. The NSF network was an internet (with a lowercase i). As this network grew throughout the world, it became known as the Internet (with an uppercase I). Early Internet pioneers – mostly educators and scientists – used primitive command – line user interfaces to send e –mail, transfers files, and run scientific calculations on Internet supercomputers. Finding information was not easy. Without search engines, Internet users relied on word of mouth and e – mail to keep informed about new data and its location. How did the Internet become so popular?

In the early 1990s, software developers created new user – friendly Internet access tools, and Internet accounts became available to anyone willing to pay a monthly subscription fee. Today, the Internet connects computers all over the globe and supplies information to people of all ages and interests. How big is the Internet today?

With an estimated 500 million nodes and more than 2 billion users, the Internet is huge. Although exact figures cannot be determined, it is estimated that the Internet handles more than an exabyte of data every day. An exabyte is 1.074 billion gigabytes, and that’s a nearly unimaginable amount of data.

WHO RUNS THE INTERNET?
No one is in charge of the Internet. No single organization owns or runs the Internet. There are organizations that develop technical aspects of this network and set standard for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. Private companies own the Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows. The various subnetworks within the Internet have owners who may designate rules and regulations for their individual networks, but they are separate entities with little worldwide influence. Internal Society (ISOC)

* helps gives the Internet’s development.
* is a professional, non – profit society with more than 80 organizational and 28,000 individual members in more than 180 countries. * provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet and is the organizational home of groups responsible for internet infrastructure standards. * Within ISOC, various committees and working groups publish newsletters, organize conferences, and manage e –mail distribution lists to promote progress for the internet. INTERNET TOOLS/COMPONENTS/SERVICES

1. E – mail
* Electronic Mail
* Electronic message sent from one computer to another. You can send or receive personal and business – related...
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