The Impact of Green Revolution on India
In the backdrop of the food crisis that gripped India in the 1960s and 1970s, the Government of India initiated the ‘Green Revolution’ program. Economist Alok Ghosh defines the ‘Green Revolution as a revolution both in the quantum of agricultural input and output. It was an attempt to become self-sufficient in production of food grains. The Government made a package deal consisting of high yielding varieties of seeds, water management, pest control and fertilizer application at the optimum level in addition too sufficient credit facilities. To disseminate information Krishi Vigyan Kendras, model farms and district block development offices were instituted. Seed farms were developed. To augment research the Indian Council for Agricultural Research [ICAR] was reorganized. As the new variety was chemicals and fertilizer intensive, new industrial units were licensed. To encourage two crops a year and monsoon-independence, irrigation canals and deep water wells were created. Policy was changed to assure guaranteed prices and markets. Food stock storages were created. The results were not long to come. Land under active cultivation began to grow from 1.9 million hectares [mHa] in 1960 to 15.5mHa 1970, 43mHa in1980 and 64mHa in 1990.The impact of the revolution was multifaceted and affected India in every way possible; be it sociological, economic or ecological. Sociological Impact
(i) Personal inequalities:
Due to Green Revolution the income of rich farmers increased considerably whereas the poor farmers couldn't reap any benefit. Hence in Punjab it led to concentration of wealth, income and assets with the rich farmers on the one hand and gradual pauperization of the rural poor. This led to a class conflict between the rich and the poor farmers. The small and marginal farmers were deprived of enjoying the gains of new technology.
(ii) Regional Inequality:
The new technology was successfully implemented in...
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