Impact of Formal Preschool Education on Primary Enrollment and Academic Performance

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Impact of formal Preschool Education on Primary Enrolment and Academic Performance: Evidence from KPK, Pakistan

Yaminay Usman Mustafa
MPhil Development Studies

Education is an undeniable tool for nation building. It is a process of orderly instruction and training to pass on knowledge, attitudes and aptitudes to people intended at nurturing them to play proactive roles in the development of their nation. But in Pakistan the condition of education is unsatisfactory. According to Secretary of State for International Development, Andrew Mitchell, ‘Pakistan is facing an education emergency. The facts are shocking. Half the adult population and two thirds of the [female] population is illiterate’ (Mitchell, 2012). Pakistan is significantly off track on MDG 2, achieving universal primary education by 2015. Furthermore, almost half of children enrolled do not complete their primary education this is an alarming figure. Similarly the literacy rate of Khyber Pakhtoon khwa (KPK) is very low it is 50%. For females, it is 30 % females while for males it is 70 %. It is a huge gender disparity where an important part of the society has such a low literacy rate. In 2010-11, 45% students have been dropped out at government primary schools level over a complete circle of 6 years. It includes 39% boys and 53% girls. Apart from economic and cultural factors the other reason for high dropout rate is that most of the students don’t academically score well in primary schools and hence fail to promote to higher classes. There base is not strong so there is a dire need to familiarize children of the age of 3 to 5 years with education which is done through Pre schooling, instead of directly enrolling them to primary schools Government of KPK, 2010.

So the seed of education is sown by pre schooling. Pre schooling is a stepping stone and foundation for all the succeeding phases of further education. It is a tool which helps to acquaint and prepare children with schooling. A...
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