The impact of Julius Caesar's reign on the people of Rome.

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Julius Caesar is perhaps one of the most famous Roman generals and statesmen throughout history; now a household name. He was in government between the formation of the 'First Triumvirate' in 60BC and his assassination in 44BC. Caesar brought about the effective end of the Republic, creating much of the Empire through conquest, particularly in Gaul. He defeated many of his rivals and opposition and gave the state time and effort in order to make Rome a better place. As a dictator, Caesar initiated a series of political and social reforms, relieving the state of hardships and creating stability. Caesar was popular among the people of Rome due to the developments of Rome, but remained unpopular within the Senate as he did not consult them before making decisions. Caesar was also involved in a series of civil wars, ranging from locations in Spain, Greece and even Africa; making short infrequent visits back to Rome over a four year period. Caesar was seen to be a difficult but effective leader of Rome and was one of the most successful in his time.

Gaius Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 in 100BC as the child of Aurelia and Gaius Caesar. He was raised in an understated apartment building in a suburban, lower class area of Rome. The Caesar family would not have been seen as rich by the standard to Romans, until his aunt Julia married Gaius Marius (a general and a reformer of the Roman army and also one of the richest men in Rome). It was then that the Caesar family gained wealth. Marius got into a series of arguments with another general, Sulla, which led to a civil war, and eventually Sulla's dictatorship. Caesar was bound to Marius through family connections and the fact that he was also married to the daughter of a supporter of Marius's. Caesar was forced to leave the country once Marius and his father died, but Sulla pardoned him and allowed him back. According to Suetonius, Sulla said about Caesar: "He whose life you so much desire will one day be the overthrow of the part of nobles, whose cause you have sustained with me; for in this one Caesar, you will find many a Marius" ( Caesar was only 20 years old at this time and soon after left Rome to fulfill military service in Asia Minor. This operation was the start of Caesar's military life and perhaps paved the way for his major roles in the Senate.

It wasn't until 63BC that Caesar became pontifex maximus (chief priest) and truly began his involvement in the politics of Rome. It was during the year of 61BC that Caesar was appointed the role of Governor of Spain, under the title of proconsul. Caesar decided he would run for the title of consulship. However he found he had little time to complete his triumph and return to Rome as a civilian to stand for the title. Caesar applied to the Senate to stand for the consulship in absentia (absent) but was refused. He was forced to give up his triumph in Spain and return to Rome to raise enough money for the elections. Caesar found that he now had to solidify his alliances to secure his election into the Senate. He already formed a solid friendship with the wealthy Marcus Crassus and now had to approach his opponent Pompey the Great in order to form his ideal alliance, 'The First Triumvirate'; "So these three most powerful men pooled their interests" (Appian, Civil wars, 2.2.9; Studies in Ancient Rome, Hennessy p.81). It was in 59BC that Caesar was elected as consul and in return, Caesar agreed to promote both Pompey's and Crassus's political agendas.

This formation of the triumvirate showed Caesars sheer determination to pass through actions in the face of the rather inflexible and hostile senate. Caesar took the laws straight to the people. Such laws as tax demands on farmers were cancelled and public land was allocated to families with three or more children, showing Caesar already knew the extent of the issues facing the people of Rome. This not only would increase Caesar's popularity and...
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