Immunology

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Title: Immunology
Aim: To visit a microbiology department at the university hospital and acquire detailed information of various antigen-antibody tests eg. ASO, haemotoglutination, ELISA etc.
Method: To listen to presentation made and thus formulate a concise report on that which was discussed and demonstrated. (Please see BC34D Laboratory Manual for more information)

Concise Report/Summery:
The term serology refers to both the study of general antigen-antibody reactions in a laboratory setting and the specific blood test conducted to test for the presence of antibodies. A serology test is performed to determine a patient's blood type and to test for and identify an infection, giving serology applications in the fields of health care and criminology. The blood test can be either qualitative, to see if there are antibodies, or quantitative, to determine the levels of antibodies in the blood. Agglutination and precipitation tests are performed to determine the type of infection. The agglutination test involves taking the culture of antigens mixed with antibodies and examining it under a microscope to see if clumping occurs. The precipitation test determines the similarity of antigens. The antibodies are placed in agar gel with the antigens. A line forms where the two interact. Antigens are microorganisms that have the potential to cause infection in the body. When the body is exposed to an antigen, it produces antibodies that are designed to fight the specific antigen invader. Sometimes, antigens are present in the blood, but there is no apparent infection. In this case, serology tests can be performed to test the levels of antibodies in the blood; if the levels increase, the body is fighting an infection. Serology the science may be complex, but for a patient undergoing a serology test, it is as simple as getting your blood drawn. Either a nurse or a doctor performs the test in a clinical setting. The risks are the same as any other blood draw: excessive bleeding, nausea, hematoma and infection of the site. The blood is tested in a laboratory to determine if you have an infection and what type it is. Serology is critical in forensic investigations. Forensic serology involves the analysis of blood as well as semen, saliva and other bodily fluids. Blood that connects a perpetrator to a crime scene is hard to dismiss. In recent years, forensic serology has become much more precise and sophisticated with the advent of DNA testing. However, several other commonly used tests comprise this science. Serology also entails basic blood typing tests, which categorizes blood into four types: A, B, AB and O, and over time, the system was refined into many additional subcategories based on the presence of proteins such as Rh (which accounts for the -/+ suffix of a blood type) as well as more than 100 unique antigens. The simplest method of blood typing involves the testing of a sample with anti-serums to identify the four basic groups. Antibodies are immune proteins called immunoglobulins that are produced in response to the detection of a foreign object or antigen, such as bacteria, viruses or cancer cells. There are five major types of immunoglobulins in the body: IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE and IgD. Levels for each type of antibody are measured to test and treat for cancer or other infectious diseases. There are several types of methods used to measure antibodies for researcher or medical needs. It is often necessary to experimentally determine the concentration of an antibody protein in a solution. Science suppliers, for most commonly studied antibodies, provide kits through which the concentration of an antibody can be measured by adding a reactant to a solution and measuring the absorbance of that solution in a spectrophotometer. The absorbance will be proportional to the concentration of antibody, or colourimetry- observation of the colour intensities is test tubes to varying concentrations of antibody or by means of an...
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