Causes of Immigration In Lebanon
Ahmad C. Halwany ID#: 2008 03 653
Lebanese American University
For a great period of time emigrants from Lebanon have been establishing communities throughout the world , and have been talking a lot about migration, until the number of Lebanese people outside Lebanon became greater than the double the number of Lebanese citizens. The Lebanese migration seems to have several principal causes. The first one is the economic causes based on the lack of work opportunities and poverty. The second one is the social cause that concerns the overpopulation, the insecurity and the lack of security programs. The third one is the weakness of the academic level in Lebanon where the attraction of the destination countries to the Lebanese people and the lack of experimental fields and the presence of poor managements in the domain. Hence, how are those causes really affecting the Lebanese migration?
Leaving his country is it the solution? Migration is a very old action practiced internationally, where people migrate carrying a message to other populations or searching for better conditions of survival. According to Elizabeth,B (2003), “ Arabs are not the only people to leave their land searching for new chances in life”(p.17). By our century, the rule of migration was set to be that people of the third world are the immigrants to the rich states. This truth is the case of the Lebanese immigrants that are expanded in a lot of foreign lands such as the United States of America, Australia , Arab Gulf region , European countries and others. Hence, immigration in Lebanon is induced by reasonable factors based on economic, social and academic levels.
First of all, one of the important causes of immigration in Lebanon is the economic cause. It includes two essential points like the lack of work opportunities and the poverty in the country. Starting with the fact that the standard Lebanese wage of a normal employee is relatively not enough for a man to afford a good lifestyle for his family and himself. The opposite conditions in the rich countries will attract him for migration. According to Douglas, S. (1990), “Because of low work opportunities in poor countries and the fact that relatively the wages in the rich countries are higher that in the third world immigration is to be the best resolution for survival.” (p.60). Equally important, the statistics of Lebanese that migrated for the same reason as preceded are high. “The total number of Lebanese s who migrated to the USA from 1991 to 2000 is hundred and two thousands Lebanese students” (Tabbara,R, 2001.)(Method 3 section, table 1). In addition to the number of immigrants, the percentage of jobless people is far above the ground, where more than half of the Lebanese are unemployed and they consist of two groups of people, whether they are not working and searching for work or they are not occupied and not looking for a job. According to Thomas, E. (2003),” In a sample of 200 people, the percentage of unemployed people is more than 50 %”.( Disable people and employment section, table 1). Still, one of the causes of unemployment and then a cause of migration is the truth a lot of foreigners occupy the job market in Lebanon. They come from different surrounding countries and are preferred by the Lebanese employer because they are less salaried than a Lebanese worker. According to Haddad, (1996),” The labor market in Lebanon is somehow opened to foreigners more than Lebanese especially in the construction field and in informal services sectors”. (Employment Section, para .1). Furthermore,...