Immgrants and Irbanization

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  • Topic: Tammany Hall, Rutherford B. Hayes, Political machine
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Chapter 7: Immigrants and Urbanization

Section 1: The New Immigrants

I. Through the Golden Door
A. Immigrants wanted to escape famine, land shortages (pop of Europe doubled in 100 years), religious, and/or political persecution (Russia drives out Jews), and some intended to earn money and return home (birds of passage) 1. Old immigrants: 1800 – 1880 10 million immigrants came from northern and western Europe (GB, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavian countries) a. Mostly Protestants

2. New Immigrants: 1891 – 1910 70% of the 12 million immigrants entering the US came from southern and eastern Europe (Hungary, Russia, Italians, etc) a. Mostly Catholic, Jewish, Greek Orthodox

b. Also thousands of Chinese, Japanese, Arabs 3. Businesses lied to foreigners about the advantages in the US a. Businesses wanted cheap labor and profits and competed with the rest of the world for the immigrants 4. Many Natives blamed immigrants for all of society’s ills a. Scared of their beliefs (religion and culture) b. Cheap labor robbed them of jobs (work for less than a Native born American) 5. Adolphus Busch left Germany in 1857 with three of his brothers and moved to St. Louis, Missouri a. Adolphus Busch Co-founder of Anheuser-Busch with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser b. Anheuser-Busch's best known beers include brands such as Budweiser, the Busch and Michelob families c. One of the reasons prohibition was passed under the 18th Amendment (Jan 29, 1919) is based on the fact that some of the founders of beer companies in the U.S. were from Germany (WW I fought the Germans) B. 1851 – 1883 300,000 Chinese immigrants arrived b/c of the California Gold Rush (1848) 1. Helped build nation’s railroads (transcontinental-1869 completed) 2. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882: banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and gov’t officials a. 1902 Congress banned all Chinese from entering America b. Law was not repealed until 1943

3. 1884 Japanese gov’t allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers a. U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898 and then more immigrated to the U.S. mainland II. Life in the New Land

A. A difficult Journey
1. Steamship trip to cross Atlantic took one week, crossing the Pacific took three weeks a. Steerage section: lowest level of the ship were the strings for controlling the rudder ran b. Cheapest price, louse-infested bunks, poor food, disease, and death 2. Contract Laborers: worked as slaves in exchange for their passage being paid to reach the U.S. B. Ellis Island

1. Once the immigrants arrived at immigration stations, they had to pass inspection(s) before they could enter the U.S. a. Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was the chief entry ports from 1892 to 1924 (17 million immigrants passed through) b. 20% were detained for a couple days and only 2% were denied entry 2. First, a medical exam was performed; Second, a gov’t inspector checked documents and questioned immigrants a. Medical requirements (no diseases – TB) b. Meet legal requirements (no felonies, able to work, needed some money) C. Angel Island

1. Asians (West coast-primarily Chinese) gained admission through Angel Island in San Francisco Bay a. Harsh questioning, extended detentions in cruddy buildings D. Cooperation for survival

1. Immigrants sought out people with similar cultural values, ethnic background, religious beliefs, and...
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