Chapter Five: Immediate Constituent and Phrase Structure Rule
1. Learning Objectives
Upon completing this chapter, students will be expected to be able to: 1. Comprehend phrase structure rules
2. Analyze sentence structures using IC analysis
3. Demonstrate sentence generation using phrase structure rules 4. Illustrate tree diagrams representing sentence structures
2. Topics of Content
1. What is the meaning of Immediate Constituent?
2. IC Analysis
3. IC Analysis of Sentences
4. Phrase Structure Rules (PS-Rules)
3. Teaching and Learning Method
3. Class Discussions
4. Analyzing sentences
5. Group reports
4. Teaching Materials
1. Main textbook
2. Supplementary materials
6. English Dictionaries
5. Measurement and Evaluation
Students will be evaluated on:
1. Exercises in the book
2. Participation in discussions
3. Completion of assignments
4. Group projects
5. Group report
6. Observe the attention and participation of the students in class 7. Observe the students’ interest in group work.
8. Observe the students’ questions and answers on the lectures given in class.
Immediate Constituent and Phrase Structure Rule
What is the meaning of Immediate Constituent?
Up to this point we have scrutinized the four types of morpheme--- bases, prefixes, infixes, and suffixes --- of which words are composed. Now we shall see how these are put together to build the structure that we call a word. A word of one morpheme, like blaze, has, of course, just one unitary part. A word of two morphemes, like cheerful, is obviously composed of two parts, with the division between them: cheer ful
But a word of three or more morphemes is not made up of a string of individual parts; it is built with a hierarchy of twosomes. As an illustration lets us examine the formation of gentlemanly, a word of three morphemes. We might say that man and –ly were combined to form manly and that gentle and manly were then put together to produce the form gentlemanly. But the total meaning of gentlemanly does not seem to be composed of the meanings of its two parts gents and manly, so we reject this possibility. Let’s try again. This time we’ll say that gentle and man were put together to give gentleman. And if we remember that gentle has the meanings of “ distinguished,” “belonging to a high social station,” we see that the meaning of gentleman is a composite of these of its two constituents. Now we add –ly, meaning “like”, and get gentlemanly, like a gentleman. This theory of forming gentlemanly seems to make sense.
Now when we analyze a word we show this process but in reverse. We usually divide a word into two parts of which it seems to have been composed. Thus
We continue in this way, cutting each part into two more until we have reduced the word to its ultimate constituents, that is, to the unit morphemes of which it is composed. Our analysis of gentlemanly would look like this:
gentle man ly
Next, let us suppose that the word to be analyzed is ungentlemanly. If we make the same first cut as before, cutting off the –ly, we get ungentleman plus –ly. But as English contains no such word as ungentleman, our word could not be composed of the two parts ungentleman, and our word could not be composed of the two parts ungentleman and –ly. Instead, let’s cut after the un-. This gives un- plus gentlemanly, a common English negative prefix plus a recognizable English word. This seems to be the right way to begin, and as we continue we get this analysis.
un gentle man ly