Image and Sound

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Cinematography

Classical Style
‘Hollywood style”
Dominant visual language for storytelling with film

History
Esward Mynbridge-first ‘moving picture of a galloping horse 1880-first usage of term
1895-1907 Primitive period of cinema (developing of cinematic language) 1907-narrative display dominants over narrative absorption
After 1907:
Classical Hollywood style
Position the viewer in a fictional space of the narrative
Camera allows engagement with a character and story
Development of shooting and editing

Short Terminologies
Shots are defined by the amount of subject matter that is included within the frame of the screen Sequence – a series of shots which when placed one after the other show a single incident or set of related actions or event

Wide shot
Great distance
Human figures- not included, or the camera too far away

Very long shot
Established setting/location
Gives the geography. No doubt where people in this shot are

Long shot
Whole figure in foreground
Takes in whole height of the erson
Doesn’t show as much of background as VLS

Medium Long shot
Taken from a knee up
*
* Mid-shot
* From waist up
* Person grows while the setting diminishes
*
* Medium Close up
* Shot from chest up
* Shows face more clearly
* Typically used for dialogue
*
* Close-up
* Shot just from above the shoulder
* Facial expressions/reaction
*
* Extreme close-up
* Part of face/one feature
*
* Camera angles
* Connection between size and camera angle
* Representation of emotion/feelngs
* Primary used to affect the audience’s responses to the shot/scene * Can cause disorientation
* Three categories:
* High angle
* Eye level straight angle
* Low angle
*
* Point of View
* Means the representation of what character see/doesn’t see * POV:
* Third person POV(look at the characters from outside, observing * First Person POV(subjective)- through character eyes, see what he sees * Eye of God
* Draws us into the narrative, give us prospective(important), involve in unfolding action * Encourage us to identify emotionally with characters, story *
* Camera movements
* Pan - camera pivots horizontally left-to-right(and back) while mounted on tripod. * Scans horizontally.
* Tilt – up and down on a tripod.
* Scans vertically (feeling of hight, drop sown)
* Track in/out (dolly shot) -camera moves quite smoothly in/out/right/left on a dolly *
* Mise-en-scene
* “Putting into the scene”
* The staging of theater directors, the way they arrange all the visual elements on the stage * Focuses attention in what Occurs in the shot itself
* All he elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed * “Pro-filmic elements”
* Elements:
* Lighting
* Set
* Costumes
* Props
* Figure behavior
* Long takes in particular makes us notice details –give our eyes more ime to scrutinize the scene * Cam reveal important visual information abut character and narrative * Creates a credible scene of the ‘world’ of the film including a particular time/place * Underscoring mood and atmosphere

* Viewers are usually unaware of impact/uses of lighting
* Two basic schemas in a film:
* High-key-even diffusion of lighting across the shot
* Low-key: higher contrast of dark and light
*
* Setting:
* Not merely backdrops
* Location serve to reinforce the narrative
* Plausibility and credibility
* Genre, socio-economic status of characters, psychological status * ‘Symbolic space’
*
* Props:
* Objects
* Definition of the genre
* Operates on several levels :
Their concrete particularities
Their narrative suggestiveness
Symbolic density
* Role in relationship to the character:
* Occupation, expressive of emotions
*
* Costumes:
* Make-up, hair...
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