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Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA)
Programme Code: BDP
Course Code: ESO-11
Assignment Code: ESO-11/
Section – I
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Describe the major concerns of Sociology and discuss its nature and scope. 20 Solution: Sociology concentrated heavily on society and its major units and their dynamics. It has been striving to analyse the dynamics of the society in terms of organised patterns of social relations. Firstly, the major concern of sociology is sociological analysis. It means the sociologist seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with a sociological perspective. He evinces his interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made "to analyse the factors and forces underlying historical transformations of society". Due importance is given to the scientific method that is adopted in the sociological analysis.
Secondly, sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area, it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personalty, groups of all varieties, communities (urban, rural, and tribal), associations, organisations and populations.
Thirdly, sociology has been concerned with the development, structure and function of a wide variety of basic social institutions such as the family and kinship, property and religion, economic, political, legal, educational and scientific, recreational and welfare, aesthetic and expressive institutions.
Fourthly, no sociologist can afford to ignore the fundamental social processes that play a vital role. The social process such as co-operation and competition, accommodation and assimilation, social conflict including war and revolution; communication including opinion formation expression and change; social differentiation and stratification, socialisation and indoctrination, social control and deviance including crime, suicide, social integration and social change assume prominence in sociological studies.
Fifthly, sociology has placed high premium on the method of research also. Contemporary sociology has tended to become more and more rational and empirical rather than philosophical and idealistic. Sociologists have sought the application of scientific method in social researches. Like a natural scientist, a sociologist senses a problem for investigation. He then tries to formulate it into a researchable proposition. After collecting the data he tries to establish connections between them. He finally arrives at meaningful concepts, propositions and generalisations
Finally, in the present era of explosion of knowledge sociologists have ventured to make specialisations also.Thus, today good number of specialised fields of inquiry are emerging out. Sociology of knowledge, sociology of history, sociology of literature, sociology of culture, sociology of religion, sociology of family etc., represent such specialised fields., The field of sociological inquiry is so vast that any student of sociology equipped with genius and rich sociological imagination can add new dimensions to the discipline of sociology as a whole.
Scope of Sociology
Scope means the subject matter or the areas of study. Every science has its own field of inquiry. It becomes difficult to study a science systematically unless its boundary or scope is determined precisely. Sociology as a social science has its own scope or boundaries. But there is no one opinion about the scope of Sociology. However, there are two main schools of thought regarding the scope of Sociology: (1) The Specialist or Formalistic school and (2) the Synthetic school. There is a good deal of controversy about the scope of Sociology between the two schools. The supporter of first school believe that Sociology is a...