Foundation Course in Humanities and Social Sciences
Course Code : BSHF 101
Answer in 250 words. Attempt any four questions.
1. What do you understand by term Post-Industrial society? Are ……………………………………….…of the Industrial society?
Solution: Industrial society came into existence when the number of factory workers exceeded the number of primary-industry workers. Primary industry is the type of economic activity that deals with the harvesting of raw materials. Included in that category are: farming, fishing, foresting, mining, and so forth.
England was probably the first industrial society, but there is some reason to believe that the phenomenon occurred about the same time in Holland. Post-industrial society exists when more people are employed in the service industry than in secondary industry (manufacturing, etc.) and primary industry (farming, etc.)
The United States was the first post-industrial society. This occurred around 1970. By the last census, slightly more than 7 of every 10 working Americans were occupied in the service industry. Post-industrial society, first of all, depends upon others to supply many of the products of secondary industry. This explains the imbalance in consumer trade. We export technology and intelligence for manufactured goods. Because of the advances made during the period when the U.S. was an industrial society, about two percent of the entire population now produces foor (primary industry) for the rest of the people.
The key social institution in post-industrial society is education. Tertiary industry (which replaces secondary and primary industries as the major employer) includes the various fields of medicine; accounting, banking, and financial services; information development and transfer; communications; engineering research and development; legal services; and other areas that require personnel with AT LEAST college educations.
2. What are the challenges………………………………….Elaborate?
Solution: Financial Challenges
The Right to Education Act is already plagued with various financial hurdles and challenges. The fiscal burden is to be shared between the center and the states in the ratio of 55 : 45 and 90 : 10 for the North-Eastern States. This project is going to involve funds to the tune of Rs. 15,000 crores. Many states have already voiced their inability to mobilize funds and entered into a dispute with the center. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and many states have expressed that they would not be able to implement the Act in the absence of funds from the center. Orissa in fact wants the same status enjoyed by the North Eastern states with respect to the Act. The success as far is the financial issues are concerned largely depends upon the center-state cooperation.The ambitious project is already falling short of around Rs.7.000 crores in the very first year itself. Since the Act involves improving the infrastructure of schools, training teachers, creating more facilities besides the manifold increase in intake, huge finances would be involved and it is difficult to envisage how the economics of it all will be worked out.
Challenge to Find Qualified Teachers
The dearth of good and qualified teachers is going to be one of the most crucial challenges faced in implementing the act. In the absence of competent teachers who are considered the pillars of education, it would be next to impossible for the Act to realistically achieve its goals. It is a fact that at any given point, about 25% teachers are on leave in India and a majority of them are unable to do full justice to their professions due to a myriad of reasons.As it is evident from the Act that school drop outs and others would be brought back into the education stream again, it would entail hiring almost double the number of teachers. It would be a challenge to find quality teachers without any...