The origin of the Ifugaos is derived from the term Ipugo which means “from the hill”. According to Ifugao mythology, however, the name “Ifugao” is derived from Ipugo which refers to the rice grain given to them by their god Matungulan. Until the present day, this kind of rice grain is cultivated by the Ifugaos.
The generic name Ygolote, Igolot, or Igorrote was used by the Spanish conquistadores and missionaries in their writing about all the various mountain people. Later in the 1900’s, the American writers popularized the name Igorot. According to the eminent Filipino scholar Trinidad H Pardo de Tavera, the word Ygolote is derived from the Tagalog term golot meaning “mountain” and the prefix “I,” meaning “people of.” Religious Beliefs and Practices
Ifugao religious beliefs are expressed in the numerous rites and prayers (baki) that comprise the main body of Ifugao myths. The myths and folktales tell of their gods and goddesses, related supernatural beings, their ancestors and the forces of nature. The Ifugaos, aside from being deity worshipers, are nature worshipers and ancestor worshipers.
A horde of major and minor deities are invoked at every ritual, the major gods being appealed to first. Barton listed as many as 1,500 deities in various ranks from gods, to demons, monsters, imps and spirits dwelling in trees, stones, mountains, and rivers aside from the omnipresent ancestor spirits.
The Ifugaos believe that the cosmos is composed of six regions, four regions being above the earth, one being the earth itself, and the sixth lying under the earth. The people do not consider any of their deities as supreme but generally refer to Mah-nongan as the honorary dead and creator of all things. He is their chief god.
The major gods Liddum, Punholdayan, Hinumbian, Ampual, Wigan and Yogyog are invoked to intercede with Mah-nongan or any of the particular major gods who might have caused sickness or other suffering.
These invocations, which are always accompanied by animal offering and drinking of wine, are meant to “bribe” the gods and win their favor. The people believe that since certain gods cause sickness, the malady can only be cured by having other deities intercede for the invalid, thus making it necessary to offer sacrifices to the several gods concerned. Liddum is regarded as the chief mediator between the people and the other gods. Visual Arts and Crafts
Weaving is the exclusive task of Ifugao women. Traditionally, weaving is done for the family’s needs, but it is only done for commercial purposes. Girls learn to weave by helping their mother or elder sister, and by actual practice under elder women. Weaving instruments such as the loom sticks, the spindle, the apparatus for fluffing, skeining, and winding are made by the menfolk.
Weaving entails a long process beginning with the preparation of the raw material to be used; spinning; winding or skeining, known as iwalangan; dyeing; warping the cotton threads; and finally the actual weaving, which involves two women or girls who operate the weaving loom.
Weavers from Kiangan, Ifugao classify their works into textiles with and without dyed designs. They weave blankets, G-strings, skirts, upper garments, belts, hip and hand bags. Each type of textile reflects particular social functions.
Blankets have several pieces. The middle pieces are called the body of the blanket or adolna. The side pieces are called balingbing. A narrow band with fringes called talungtung borders the width of the blanket. The right side is the blanket’s back or adogna. The reverse side is referred to as the putuna or its stomach.
ART KNOWS NO BOUNDARIES OF RACE, COLOR, CREED OR TIME.
WORKS OF MAN’S IMAGINATION ALREADY EXISTED IN THE EARLY PAGES OF MAN’S UNWRITTEN STORY. THE DRAWINGS ON THE CAVES OF
FRANCE DEPICTING PREHISTORIC ANIMALS ARE...