In the recent years, job satisfaction and how an employee perceives his or her job, has become one of the key areas of study for an organization. This is because, whether an employee is content with his working conditions or not, has an impact on the functioning of the whole organization. Every firm wants maximum productivity from their employees. This essay will discuss how the above can be achieved through job satisfaction. It will also talk about the negative impacts of low job satisfaction and its effects on the performance of employees. It will also look through the benefits and elements of job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is defined as "the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs." (Williams, 2004. cited by Spector, 1997) Job satisfaction has significant economic influence. In the event of people being dissatisfied with their jobs, companies can lose a lot in terms of quality, time, resources and money. It also leads to higher rates of quitting and absenteeism. Whereas, high job satisfaction leads to refined job performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Higher cost of labour and lower productivity can also be caused by job dissatisfaction. (Mohr and Zoghi, 2008) Hence, it is vital for the organization to enforce that the personal, organizational and social needs are being met so as to keep the employees satisfied so that they perform at higher levels and benefit themselves as well as the organization. Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is said to effect how an employee perceives and relates to his organization. It influences his behavior and commitment.
To truly understand the importance and role of job satisfaction, we should examine the functioning of a firm in its absence, i.e., examine the negative effects of the employees of a firm not being satisfied with their jobs. Dissatisfaction directly effects employees’ job performance and commitment as it affects the employees’ attitude towards their entire working environment including co-workers, the workplace and the work itself. Employees may feel dissatisfied due to multifarious reasons. They may feel so because they feel that they or their work is being undervalued. They may feel as though they do not have enough opportunities to put forward their ideas and voice their opinions or that there isn’t sufficient recognition through financial or non-financial incentives. If so, either of the two things may happen – either they do not perform at high levels or feel committed to their work or workplace but continue working at low levels with decreased productivity, or employees eventually quit their job. In the first case if an employee is dissatisfied and continues working in the organization, it is observed that there is increased counter-productive behavior like wasting resources or damaging property. Also, for example, if an employee feels he is not given enough authority, he may end up abusing the authority he has by being too strict with his subordinate or may lead to harassment. Withdrawal behavior may also increase which is basically when a person tries to avoid tasks that need to be performed. Such behavior is common when an employee is eventually going to quit. It includes physical withdrawal behavior through acts such as frequent absenteeism, tardiness etc and psychological withdrawal behavior through daydreaming, excessive socializing etc. All this hampers task performance and contextual performance (also known as organizational citizenship behavior or OCB) and in turn reduces how productive the employee actually is. In the second case, employees eventually quit. This starts with withdrawal behavior which starts to lower productivity and increase losses and then leads to increasing the employee turnover rate once he or she finally leaves the organization. High turnover rate is an important consideration for many organizations as it is associated with...
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