Chapter 1: On which beliefs and values should my ideology be based on? Collective and Individual Beliefs and Values
* Collectivism places the needs of the whole group before those of any individual within the group. * What are some examples of collectivism that we have learned about in the past? * Individualism places the needs of an individual above a whole group. * What are some examples of individualism that we have learned about in the past? * Pg. 7 in Understandings of Ideologies
* There are some instances where people may not fit within the categories of collectivism or individualism. * Some people feel that there are benefits to both collectivism and individualism. * Pg. 9 Figure 1-3
* Ones identity is shaped by their values and beliefs. One can have both individual values and beliefs and also collective values and believes. * Factors that influence individual and collective beliefs and values are: * Culture
* Religion and spirituality
* Environment and relationship to the land
* As we have studied in past years, ones beliefs and values may compliment or contend with one another. Ones beliefs or values may even compliment or contend with those of other people or the society which they live in. * Ones identity is a complex balancing act between many competing factors: priorities, cultures, influences, languages, beliefs and values. Understanding Ideologies
* Ideologies are systems of thought that try to explain how the social world works, how we should live together, how we should treat one another, why we should or should not care about society and others, and how society ought to be in the future. * Ideologies are formed through the creation of new idea and ways of thinking. * Each ideology was started with a small group of people who share a new way of thinking. * In some cases, those who share the same values and beliefs come to share the same ideology. *
Ideologies can be grouped into themes. Four common themes are: * Nation
* Relationship to the land and the environment
* Some ideologies reflex the beliefs and values related to a nation. (A nation can be considered a country, e.g. Canada is a civic nation, or a group of people with common culture, history, language, customs, etc. For example, Metis or Quebecois.) * A nation is concerned with sovereignty, self-preservation, its own identity, citizenship, and the rights of its citizens. Sometimes a nation may take it to the extreme and conflict with other nations. * What is an example of a country that has taken its values and beliefs to the extreme?
* Religion is a key theme of some ideologies. Many religious beliefs and values relate to ethics and morality. * Some states are governed according to religious beliefs and values which can lead to conflict and wars even though the religion itself does not promote violence. * Examples of religion as a theme of ideology:
* Iran: As of 1979, Iran is a non-secular state.
* Germany: The CDU (Christian Democratic Union) is one of the largest political parties in Germany. * Turkey: Is currently struggling with secularism and non-secularism * India: The BJP party is the religious party of India – strong force for Hindu Nationalism.
* Social class is how society is structured and is based on the occupations or the amount of money one has. * There is the working class, the middle class, and the upper class. * Communism is an ideology that proposes that the working class rises against the upper class so that all classes are eliminated and all people are free.
Relationship to the Land and Environment
* For many years, people have relied on their inter-relationship with the earth’s resources as part of their survival and beliefs...