1.1 Identify the main types of state and independent schools.
* Voluntary aided
* Voluntary controlled
1.2 Describe the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stage(s) and school governance.
Primary, Secondary and Grammar schools are all governed by the Local Education Authority (LEA). These schools determine their own admissions policy. Local groups such as childcare classes and adult education may develop the use of the school facilities.
Foundation schools (such as religious schools) are not run by the LEA but by their own governing body. This governing body determines its own admissions policy in consultation with the LEA. The governing body or a charitable foundation will own the schools, the land and buildings. As these schools are not governed by the LEA they have to buy in any support services. The decision on becoming a trust school will be made by the governing body and consultation with parents.
There are two types of voluntary schools, voluntary aided and voluntary controlled.
Voluntary aided schools are mainly faith or religious schools although pupils of any religion can attend. Much like a foundation school they are run by their own governing body, although the buildings and land are normally owned by a charity or organisation. These schools are funded partly by the LEA which will provide support services.
Voluntary controlled schools are very similar to voluntary aided schools, although they are funded and run by the local authority. The local authority will employ the staff and provide support services. A charity, which is often a religious organisation, will usually own the land and buildings.
Specialist schools are generally secondary schools that have applied for specialist status to develop one or two subject specialisms. They will receive additional funding from the government for this.
'Special schools can also apply for specialist school status to be given for a special educational needs (SEN) specialism under one of the four areas of the SEN Code of Practice'.
(Burnham etal, 2010, page 73)
Academies are set up by sponsors from businesses and are independently managed schools which jointly fund the buildings and land. They are not maintained by the LEA but have close links with it.
Private Independent Schools are funded by fees paid by parents and also income from investments, gifts and charitable endowments which sets them apart from the local authority. This means that just over half of independent schools have charitable status, meaning they can claim tax exemption. The Head Teacher and governors decide on the admissions policy and they do not have to follow the National Curriculum. These schools are obliged to register with the Department for Education (DfE) so that they can be monitored on a regular basis by the Independent Schools Incorporate (ISI)
2.1 Describe roles and responsibilities.
School Governors are made up of a variety of different people who will link somehow to the school and also the local community. They are generally in a team of 10 to 12 people and they have the responsibility of running the school. In addition to the Head Teacher there should be at least one staff governor and at least one parent governor. There can also be a support staff governor. There will also be a local authority (LA) governor who will be appointed by the LA, and a local community governor who generally works or lives in the community served by the school. Governors work closely with the Senior Management Team and the Head Teacher. Governors are based on various committees which are responsible for various areas of school management for example, personal issues or the school site.
'They will meet in the committees and then report back to the full governing body. Their main duties are:...
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