MATERIALS AND METHODS3
i) COLLECTION OF SAMPLES FROM FIELDS3
ii) PROCESSING OF SAMPLES3
iii) QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS3
iv) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS3
v) TEMPORARY MOUNTS4
vi) KILLING, FIXING AND PROCESSING OF NEMATODES4
vii) PERMANENT SLIDE MOUNTS4
viii) PHOTOMICROGRAPH OF EELWORM AND CYST NEMATODES4
ix) MEASUREMENTS AND DRAWINGS4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS5
DESCRIPTION OF GENERA9
IDENTIFICATION OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES INFECTING
VEGETABLES IN DARGI, MALAKAND AREA
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of B.Sc. Hons.
PLANT PATHOLOGY DEPARTMENT
KHYBER PAKHTOON KHWA
AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, PESHAWAR
A survey was conducted to identify stylet bearing nematodes infecting vegetable crops in Dargi Malakand area. Twelve soil samples were collected from different localities and analyzed at National Nematological Research Centre (NNRC), University of Karachi, Karachi. Plant parasitic nematodes belonging to twelve genera viz., Hoplolaimus, Xiphinema Tylenchorhynchus, Tylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Ditylenchus, Psilenchus, Aphelenchus, Pratylenchus, longidorous, Aphelechoides and Paralongidorous along with free living soil nematodes have been isolated and identified. Root knot and cyst nematodes from root samples have also reported.
Dargi, Malakand area is heavily infested by all groups of nematodes i.e. parasitic, free living, and predacious, including root Knot and cyst nematodes. These nematodes infect all crops in the region directly or by transmitting other diseases as vector which increases the infestation rate. During 1984 to 1988 the nematodes infestation increased to such a level that tomato and other solaneceious crops fail to grow in the whole Malakand and Swat Region (Ali khan and Haji Muhammad Agricultural Officer Dargi). Therefore a survey was conducted to isolate and identify the plant parasitic nematodes infecting vegetables particularly and other crops in general in Dargi region. Seven localities i.e., Jaban, Jabban Turbala Pull, Dobbandi, Warteer, Heroshah, Palona, Muhammad Patti, were visited and soil with root samples have been collected from different host crops like bringle, lady figure, tomato, potato, onion, sponge guard, bottle guard and chilli. The samples were brought to National Namatological Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi for detail processing and studies. Nematodes belonging to twelve genera i.e., Hoplolaimus, Xiphinema, Tylenchorhynchus, Tylenchus, Helicotylunchus, Ditylenchus, Psilenchus, Aphelenchus, Pratylenchus, Longidorous, Aphelechoides and Paralongidorous have been identified. Two genera have also been identified up to species level i.e., Hoplolaimus seinhorsti Luc, 1958 and Tylenchorhynchus nudus Allen, 1955. Measurements and drawings of these two species are included in report. Species of Xiphinema act as vector of soil-borne viruses, Hoplolaimus infection increases with combination of fungi (Fusarium oxysporam). Along with parasitic nematodes large numbers of free-living and predaceous nematodes have also been observed; majority of them belonging to Dorylaimids, Rhabditids, Cephalobids, Acrobeloides sp. Mononchids, the predaceous groups. Heavily infestations have been found in Jabban and Dobbandy area. Soil moisture (45%----65%) and soil texture (Clay to sandy clay) has been calculated in June in Dargi region which increased in winter season, both of them are favorable for the nematodes reproduction. During the survey it has also been observed that the infestation of nematodes in the less infected areas increase by the use of irrigation water of infested area.
MATERIALS AND METHODS